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Axit gluconic

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  • 1. TNG LIN ON LAO NG VIT NAM I HC TN C THNG KHOA: KHOA HC NG DNG GVHD: TS. L Ngc Ch Minh Lp: 10060301 Tp. H Ch Minh, ngy 29 thng 3 nm 2013 SV thc hin: 1) Nguyn Trit Lm - MSSV: 61003212

2. Tm tc I. Tng quan v axit gluconic II. Gii thiu v axit gluconic III. Cu to axit gluconic IV. ng dng ca axit gluconic V. Sn xut axit glconic VI. Sn xut axit gluconic t r ng VII. Ti liu tham kho 3. I. Tng quan v axit gluconic Axit gluconic c pht hin ln u tin vo nm 1870 bi Hasiwetz v Habermann. Axit gluconic v cc mui gluconat c trong t nhin kh ph bin do n c hnh thnh t qu trnh oxy ha glucose. Vo th k th 18, axit ny t c bit n, tuy nhin ngy nay axit gluconic ang c ng dng rng ri trong nhiu lnh vc nh cng ngh ha hc, thc phm, dc phm, dt, luyn kim, thuc da, vt liu xy dng v nhiu ngnh cng nghip khc. Hng nm trn th gii sn xut khong 50.000-100.000 tn axit gluconic v tng tt c cc loi mui gluconat khong 65.000-100.000 tn, trong gm cc loi mui nh natri gluconat, kali gluconat, canxi gluconat hay este glucono--lacton cng l nhng ph gia thc phm c chng nhn an ton khi s dng M v Chu u c s dng lm cht iu v, ph gia trong sn xut bnh nng, sa u nnh, sa chua, phomat, bnh m. 4. I. Tng quan v axit gluconic 5. II. Gii thiu v axit gluconic Axit gluconic Axit hu c yu C tnh st khun, khng c Khng bay hi Khng c tnh n mn C ngun gc t -D-glucose To bi phn ng oxy ha di xc tc glucose oxidase 6. II. Gii thiu v axit gluconic Tri cy Ru vang Mt ong Tr kombucha (nm hng tr) 7. II. Gii thiu v axit gluconic Trong cng nghip thc phm axit gluconic c s dng nh mt cht iu v. Axit gluconic c kh nng to ra hng v chua du nh v c s dng nh mt ph gia iu chnh v chua (E574). Dng cho cc sn phm nh ru vang, nc p tri cy, sa chua,. Tn khoa hc: (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6- pentahydroxyhexanoic axit 8. III. Cu to axit gluconic Axit gluconic l mt hp cht hu c c cng thc phn t C 6 H 12 O 7 v cng thc cu to HOCH2 (CHOH)4 COOH. Cu trc ha hc ca axit gluconic bao gm mt chui su cacbon vi nm nhm hydroxyl kt thc bng mt nhm axit cacboxylic Cu trc khng gian ng phn cis-tran Cng thc cu to 9. III. Cu to axit gluconic Trong dung dch nc nng 1/1000 axit cacboxylic pH gn trung tnh, axit cacboxylic to ra cc ion gluconat v cc mui ca axit gluconic gi chung l cc gluconat Khi ha tan trong nc axit nhanh chng sang trng thi cn bng ng vi vng glucono--lacton, lm cchuyn cho dung dch tr thnh hn hp ca axit vi glucono--lacton. 10. IV. ng dng ca axit gluconic Lnh vc ng dng Y hc Mt s loi thuc c tim di dng gluconat S dng iu tr bng t axit HF Quinin gluconat l mui gia acid gluconic v quinine, c s dng iu tr st rt Tim canxi gluconate c th c s dng cho cc trng hp nghim trng hn trnh hoi t m su Thc phm Cht to ra hng v chua du nh v c s dng nh mt ph gia iu chnh v chua (E574). Khai khong Lm sch cc sn phm m n ha tan, c bit l trong dung dch kim, cc anionCa 2 +, Fe 2 +, Al 3 +, Khoa hc Calcium gluconate tn ti nh mt cht gel 11. IV. ng dng ca axit gluconic H tr receptor glycine h thn kinh trung ng, v duy tr cn bng acid amin trong h thn kinh trung ng,vn chuyn oxy vo t bo, cung cp Methyl, h tr chc nng tim mch Axit gluconic to chua cho cc loi thc ung nh nc c gas, ru vang, bnh, Ngoi khai khong, ngi dn cn s dng trong vic kt ta cc kim loi nng lm sch ngun nc sinh hot 12. V. Sn xut axit glconic Nh cp trn axit gluconic l sn phm qu trnh oxy ha glucose D-gluconic acid v mui ca n c to ra bi qu trnh oxy ha glucose. Do c nhiu cht oxi ha trong nguyn liu nn phng php ln men t tn km hn ha hc. Trong s cc qu trnh ln men vi sinh vt khc nhau, phng php s dng nm Aspergillus niger l mt trong nhng loi c s dng rng ri nht Tuy nhin, vic s dng Gluconobacter oxydans cng t c tm quan trng ng k. Khng phn bit vic s dng nm hay vi khun, tm quan trng nm trn cc sn phm, c sn xut, v d, natri gluconate calcium gluconate, Nh phn ng dn n mt sn phm c tnh axit, n cn phi trung ha bng vic b sung cc tc nhn trung ha, nu khng axt bt hot glucose oxidase, dn n lng glucocid khng c cao. 13. V. Sn xut axit gluconic S chuyn ha glucose thnh axit gluconic bng len men A.ninger 14. V. Sn xut axit glconic Cc iu kin cho qu trnh ln men trong sn xut calcium gluconate v gluconat natri khc nhau nhiu kha cnh nh nng v kim sot pH. Trong qu trnh sn xut calcium gluconate , kim sot kt qu pH t vic b sung ca bn canxi cacbonat. Mt im quan trng lu l v tan ca canxi gluconate trong nc (4% 30 C). nng glucose cao, trn 15%, supersaturation xy ra, v nu n vt qu gii hn, mui canxi kt ta cc si nm v c ch s chuyn oxy. Cc qu trnh trung ha cng nn c kh trng mt cch ring bit t cc dung dch glucose trnh thay i cu to ca glucose, kt qu gim nng sut khong 30%. Ngc li, qu trnh cho natri gluconat l rt thch hp hn nh nng glucose ln n 350 g / L c th c s dng m khng cn kh trng. pH c iu khin t ng bng cch thm dung dch NaOH. 15. V. Sn xut axit glconic Phn ng chuyn i glucose thnh axit gluconic do nm si A. niger sn xut ra enzyme glucose oxidase. Ty thuc vo ng dng, nc canh ln men c cha gluconat natri hoc calcium gluconate c sn xut bng cch b sung hydroxit natri hoc canxi cacbonat tng ng, trung ha. iu kin ti u chung cho sn xut acid gluconic l nh sau: - Glucose nng gia 110 - 2 50 g / L. - Ngun nit v pht pho nng rt thp (20 mM). - Gi tr pH ca mi trng (khong 4,5 n 6,5). - Sc kh t l rt cao bi cc ng dng ca p sut khng kh cao (4 bar). 16. V. Sn xut axit glconic C hai thng s nh hng n s sn xut acid gluconic l oxy sn c v pH ca mi trng nui cy. Oxygen l mt trong cc cht nn quan trng trong qu trnh oxy ha glucose nh glucose oxidase s dng oxy phn t trong bioconversion glucose. Nng ca gradient oxy v h s truyn oxy th tch l nhng yu t quan trng, theo di s sn c ca oxy trong mi trng. Hai yu t ny nh hng n t l chuyn oxy t kh pha nc. T l thng kh v tc thng kh lm nh hng n s sn c ca oxy trong mi trng. Sn xut acid gluconic l mt qu trnh cc k tn oxy vi mt nhu cu oxy cho phn ng bioconversion, c nh hng mnh m bi nng oxy ha tan cao. Oxy c thng c cung cp theo hnh thc khng kh trong kh quyn, tuy nhin, trong mt s nghin cu oxy tinh khit cao p cng c cung cp. Immobilised si nm Aspergillus niger pht trin bng cch s dng oxy tinh khit, sn xut hiu gi cao ca axit gluconic so vi si nm pht trin trong khng kh. 17. V. Sn xut axit gluconic Trong qu trnh chuyn i glucose, glucose oxidase trong A. niger qua t gim bi vic loi b hai hydrogens. Cc hnh thc gim ca enzim l tip tc b xi ha bi xy phn t, m kt qu trong s hnh thnh ca hydrogen peroxide, mt sn phm ph trong phn ng. A. niger catalase sn xut hot ng trn hydrogen peroxide do to nc v kh oxy. Glucose thng c s dng nh ngun carbon sn xut vi khun axit gluconic. Tuy nhin, thy phn ca cc nguyn vt liu khc nhau (v d: tinh bt ng thy phn, v d nh cht thi cng nng nghip. Mt ma n ) cng c s dng nh l cht nn. Lactose c s dng nh mt cht nn v 92 g axit gluconic c sn xut t 1 L ca sa c cha glucose 0,5% v 9,5% lactose ca A. niger c nh trn bt polyurethane.Saccharified gii php cc giy thi vi nng glucose c iu chnh n 50-100 g / L c th c s dng cho bioconversion vi A. niger. Sn lng 92% trong bnh Erlenmeyer v 60% trong cc nn vn ha hng lot lp i lp li trong l phn ng li tuabin vi 800 mL khi lng lm vic. Nho v chui ng dng quan trng ca sn xut acid gluconic, cho 63 v 55 g / L tng ng. Thanh lc ca nho v chui tng 20-21% nng sut axit gluconic. 18. VI. Sn xut axit gluconic t r ng 19. VI. Sn xut axit gluconic t r ng Nh vy, trong iu kin c c nh nm mc ln men axit gluconic trn my lc, do s cn tr ca cht mang oxy kh ha tan, qu trnh ln men din ra chm, thi gian ln men ko di to sn phm ph. Ln men trong mi trng lng trn my lc to iu kin cho oxy tip xc c cht, qu trnh ln men din ra trong ton b khi dch ln men, thi gian ln men ngn, hiu sut ln men cao. T kt qu trn, chng ti la chn phng php ln men trong mi trng lng trn my lc lm phng php nghin cu ca mnh. 20. VI. Sn xut axit gluconic t r ng Dch sau ln men gm axit gluconic t do, canxi gluconat, nm mc, khong d, cc sn phm ph khc. Kt thc qu trnh ln men, nng nhit n 90 C trong ni cch thy. Sau tin hnh lc, loi b b, cc t bo cht thu hi dch. Dch sau lc kt ta canxi gluconat bng cn 96 , sau lc thu kt ta canxi gluconat, ha tan kt ta trn giy lc bng H2SO4 0.2 M, lc tch b CaSO4, dung dch axit gluconic thu c nh lng bng my HPLC. Nghin cu kt ta canxi gluconat bng cn 96 Nh vy, kt ta canxi gluconat bng cn 96o cho kt qu tt nht vi t l 5:6 (dch sau ln men:cn v/v), trong 10 gi Sau 10 gi kt ta canxi gluconat bng cn 96o, chng ti thu c kt qu ti u 40,5 (g/l). 21. VI. Sn xut axit gluconic t r ng 1. nh hng ca t l ging n hm lng axit gluconic th cho thy ban u khi t l ging tng dn, hm lng axit gluconic sinh ra tng. Tuy nhin, khi t l ging qu cao th hm lng axit gluconic gim. Khi t l ging qu t so vi c cht th enzyme sinh ra t. Do , thi gian ln men ko di, tn nng lng, hiu qu kinh t khng cao hoc to ra sn phm th khng mong mun ru, andehyt,. Ban u b sung mt lng ging qu cao, xy ra s cnh tranh dinh dng, lm tiu hao mt lng ln c cht cho qu trnh tng sinh khi. Do , hiu quchuyn ha c cht thnh axit gluconic khng cao. ng thi, ngun dinh dng ngho i cng dn n lng axit gluconic to thnh gim. Kt qu t l ging b sung l 10% vi mt bo t 10^6-107^bo t/ml thu c kt qu tt nht l 30.24 g/100g mt r 22. VI. Sn xut axit gluconic t r ng 2. . nh hng ca thi gian ln men n hm lng axit gluconic Qua th cho thy ban u khi thi gian ln men tng, hm lng axit gluconic sinh ra tng, khi thi gian ln men ko di hm lng axit gluconic gim. Thi gian u nm mc s dng c cht tng sinh khi, ng thi tit enzyme chuyn ha cc cht. Khi lng t bo cng ln th lng enzyme tit ra cng nhiu, lng axit gluconic sinh ra cng tng theo thi gian. thi im 96 gi qun th vi sinh vt bc vo pha cn bng hm lng axit gluconic sinh ra ln nht. Nu tip tc ko di thi gian ln men, khi ngun dinh dng cn kit cng vi sn phm axit gluconic to ra nhiu s c ch s pht trin ca vi sinh vt. Nm mc bt u sdng sn phm sinh ra lm c cht, to ra cc sn phm ph gy tn tht sn phm chnh ng thi gy kh khn cho qu trnh tinh sch sn phm. Kt qu sau 96 gi hm lng axit gluconic ln nht l 30.81 g/100g mt r 23. VI. Sn xut axit gluconic t r ng 3. . nh hng ca hm lng nit b sung n hm lngaxit gluconic Qua nghin cu nh hng ca hm lng nit b sung n hm lng axit gluconic to thnh, da vo th cho thy ngun nit c sn trong nguyn liu khng m bo cho qu trnh sinh trng pht trin ca vi sinh vt. Trong giai on u khi hmlng nit b sung tng hm lng axit tng ln r rt, t gi tr cao nht 29.18 g/100g mt r vi hm lng (NH4)2HPO4 3 g/l. Tip tc tng hm lng (NH4)2HPO4, khi hm lng nit qu cao dn n lng sinh khi to ra ngy cng nhiu, xy ra hin tng cnh tranh dinh dng nh hng n hiu sut ln men. Hm lng axit gluconic sinh ra gim dn v thp nht 23.97 g/100g mt r khi hm lng (NH4)2HPO4 5 g/l. Kt qu hm lng axit gluconic to thnh ln nht l 29.18 g/100g mt r khi hm lng (NH4)2HPO4 b sung l 3 g/l 24. VII. Ti liu tham kho 1. Phm Th Thy Trang, lun vn thc s Nghin cu qu trnh ln men axit gluconic t r ng bng Aspergillus ninger, H Nng - 2012. 2. N.V. Sankpal, A.P. Joshi, I.I. Sutar, B.D. Kulkarni, Continuous production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger immobilized on cellulosic support: Study of low pH fermentative behaviour of A. niger, Process Biochem. 35 (1999) 317325. 3. M. Rhr, C.P. Kubicek, J. Kominek: Gluconic Acid. In: Biotechnology, Vol. 3, H.J. Rehm, G. Reed (Eds.), Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Germany (1983) pp. 455465. 4. S. Velizarov, V. Beschkov, Production of free gluconic acidby cells of Gluconobacter oxydans, Biotechnol. Lett. 16 (1994) 715720.