Tong Hop Axit Axetic

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Chng II: TNG HP MT S HP CHT C BN BI 1: TNG HP AXIT AXETIC

Ths. Nguyn c Cng

I-C s l thuyt 1.Tnh cht ca axit axetic 2.ng dng II-Cc phng php tng hp axit axetic 1.i t axetandehit 2.Oxi ha n-butan trong pha lng 3.T cacbonmonoxit v metanol 4.Nguyn liu sn xut III-Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut axit axetic trong cng nghip 1.S cng ngh tng hp axit axetic t axetandehit 2.Thuyt minh s

I-C s l thuyt 1.Tnh cht ca axit axetic Cng thc cu to v cng thc phn t:-

CTPT :C2H4O2 CTCT : CH3COOH

Tn IUPAC:etanoic l mt hp cht hu c phn t gm nhm metyl(-CH3) lin kt vi nhm carboxyl(-COOH) Cu trc ca axit:

H H C H

O C O H

a/ Tnh cht vt l-

-

-

Axit axetic l cht lng khng mu,mi nng,v chua,axit axetic khan c gi l axit axetic bng.Axit axetic gim th tch khi pha long bng nc.Tan nhiu trong nc ,etanol, ete, benzen,khng tan trong cacbon Nng gii hn ca hi axit trong khng kh l 0,005mg/l. Dung dch axit axetic nng trn 30% gy bng

a/ Tnh cht vt l-

Nhit nng chy l 16,750C Nhit si l 118,10C Khi lng ring 150C = 1,0550 g/cm3 Chit sut vi tia D 200C = 1,3730 g/cm3 Hng s phn ly K = 1,75.10-5

b/ Tnh cht ha hcAxit axetic c tnh cht ca mt axit yu. Trong nc axit axetic in ly v i mu qu tm sang CH3-COOH CH3COO- + H+

Tc dng vi kim loi gii phng H2

2CH3-COOH + Mg (CH3COO)2Mg +H2 Tc dng vi bazo,oxyt bazo CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O

CH3COOH + CaO (CH3COO)2Ca + H2O

b/ Tnh cht ha hc Tc dng vi mui ca axit yu2CH3COOH+Na2CO32CH3COONa+H2O+CO2 Este ha,phn ng vi ru

O O H SO H O-C2H5 o C H3 C H2O C H3 C t OH O C2H52 4

Phn ng chy to thnh CO2 v H2O

CH3COOH + 2O2 2CO2 + H2O

2.ng dng ca axit axetic c dng iu ch nhiu cht c ng dng quan trng nh:axit cloaxetic(dng tng hp cht dit c 2,4 - D ; 2,4,5 T) Mui axetat ca nhm,crm,st (dng lm cht cm mu khi nhum vi si). Mt s este (lm dc liu,hng liu,dung mi). Xenlulozo axetat (iu ch t axetat). Lm sn,lm gim n.

II-Cc phng php tng hp axit axetic. 1.i t axetandehit vi oxi khng kh. Phn ng do t lin kt C-H trong nhm CH=O

CH3CHO + 1/2O2C ch:

Mn2+ 0 60 C

CH3COOH

R

C

+1

H

[O]

R C OH O

+3

O

2.Oxi ha n-butan trong pha lng

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH

O2 kk 3 Xt,mui Mn

2CH3-COOH

+C ch: 3.T cacbon oxyt v metanol

Xt CH 3 OH + CO to+C ch:

CH 3 COOH

4.Nguyn liu sn xut axit axetic - Oxi ha butan C4H10 Ru etylic ln men Oxi ha axetandehit Metanol v CO Cracking du m Chng g

III . Quy trnh cnsx acid axetic trong cng nghip:1. S dy chuyn cnsx acid axetic axetic t etanalH2O Thit b lm lnh Thit b lm sch N2 Nguyn liu Thit b khy trn O2 Thit b ngng t hi lu Thit b un nng H2O

Thp tinh luyn Thp tinh luyn

Thit b ngng t hi lu CH3COOH

III.Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut etylaxetat trong cng nghip. 1.S cng ngh tng hp axit axetic t axetandehit.N2 Kh thi N cM b m y L m l h n A xit a tic xe A H cO

L m l h n +n n g

Axit axetic longA a tic xit xe +X t

KK S nguyn l cng ngh sx axit axetic

Adh n e it a tic xe

- Cng ngh:Thp phn ng bao gm 6 on ,vt liu c lm bng nhm,5 on di ca thp c trang b rut g c th lm nng hoc lm lnh.Mi on thp cao khong 2m,vt liu ch to rut g cng bng nhm, gia cc on c thng vi nhau bng cc tm ngn c c l, pha di cc vch ngn ny ca 3 on cui cngc ng dn oxy hoc khng kh vo.Phn trn ca thp c ng chy trn (phn trn c ng knh to hn) nh th sn phm s chy qua y vo thng cha. trn nh thp c lp mng an ton v cng y c c l dn kh nito vo v cng c l dn kh i.

2.Thuyt minh s dy chuyn cng ngh. -Lc mi khi u vic oxy ha.Gia thp phn ng c y bng axit axetic c cha 0,1 % mangan-II-axetat(xc tc).Sau nh h thng rut g (cho hi vo) a nhit ct phn ng (axit axetic + xc tc)ln 400C v bt u dn andehit axetic v hoc khng kh vo .Vic cho andehit v khng kh lc uch cho tht t t v thn trng(chu k khi ng ).Phn ng xy ra c tn hiu bng nhit phn ng tng ln.Vic cho kh vo lc khi u ch tin hnh phn don cui cng ca thp phn ng, nu phn ng c tn hiu bt u vi vic tng nhit th mi tip tc cho khng kh vo phn on 2,phn on 3 ca thp.

- trnh s c xy ra v mt vn no m gia phn u v phn cui ca thp khng to c dng lu thng nn cn phi c mc thm mt my bm.Khi phn ng bt u xy ra, tc cho andehit axetic va oxy hoc khng kh dn dn c tng ln .Nhit phn ng trong thp l 50700C.Nu phn ng thc hin vi oxy th p sut duy tr l 2 bar,cn nu nh dng khng kh th p sut ln hn (7-10 bar). Khi ri khi nh thp c hm lng oxy ti a khng c vt qu 3%,thnh phn ch yu l N2,CO2,(c kh N2 khi dng lm tc nhn oxy ha)

- Nu kh thot ra c hm lng oxy trn 3% th trnh t ti gii hn n nguy him cn phi dn mt lng nh kh nito vo trn nh thp phn ng.Nu s dng khng kh th kh thot ra nh thp cn phi dn i qua mt thp ra thu hi li lng axit axetic v andehit axetic b hn hp kh mang theo.Axit axetic thu c trong cc thng hng c nng 96%.Vic tinh ch v lm m c c thc hin bng vic chng ct,chng ng ph.Sn phm ph sinh ra trong phn ng bao gm metyl axetat, metanol,etylendiaxetat,formandehit,axit formic.

- Phn ng oxi ha andehit axetic thnh axit la mt qu trnh phn ng ta nhit gii phng 296KJ/mol.

Ti liu tham kho 1. PGS Phan nh Chu, Cc qu trnh c bn tng hp hu c,NXB KH-KT, 2005 2. ng Nh Ti,Trn Quc Sn, Ha hc hu c, NXB ai hc Quc Gia,1998 3. Phan Minh Tn, Tng hp hu c v ha du, nxb H Quc Gia, 2001

III . Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut acidaxetic trong cng nghip:1 . S day chuyn cng ngh sn xut axid axetic t acetaldehide HO2

Thit b lm lnh

Thit b lm sch N2

Nguyn liu

Thit b khy trn O2

Thit b un nng

H2O

Thp tinh luyn Thp tinh luyn

Thit b ngng t hi lu CH3COOH

Thit b ngng t hi lu