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Chap 15 Chemical senses

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Chap 15 Chemical senses. 日常觀察. 一些問題. 為何狗的嗅覺這麼好? 為何冰的東西比較沒味道? 吃和聞的味道如何 combine? Flavor = smell + taste Chemical senses are 守門員 動用情緒,回憶 阻止不好的食物進入體內,或者遠離不好的環境. 生存 溝通 Menstrual synchrony Pheromones 味道 Anosmia. Detection threshold Yes/no procedure - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Chap 15 Chemical senses

  • Chap 15 Chemical senses

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    Chemical senses are

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  • Here comes your footer Page *Olfactory systemMenstrual synchronyPheromonesAnosmia Detection threshold Yes/no procedure trials with odors along with blank trialsThis can result in bias Forced-choice one with odorant and one withoutParticipant indicates which smells strongest

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  • Here comes your footer Page *Olfactory systemDifference threshold Ofactometer Recognition threshold knowing names helps recognition

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  • Neural codes for olfactory qualityOlfactory mucosa is located at the top of the nasal cavity.Odorants come in contact with the olfactory receptor neurons (ORN).

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  • Neural codes for olfactory quality (olfactory receptor neurons, ORN)Contains olfactory receptors 350 receptors (note: only 4 visual pigments)But, only one olfactory receptor for one ORN

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  • Neural codes for olfactory quality (olfactory receptor neurons, ORN)Recognition profile(

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  • Neural codes for olfactory qualityOlfactory bulbORNs of a particular type send their signals to one or two glomeruliHow do the glomeruli respond to different odorants?Optical imaging

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  • Neural codes for olfactory qualityOlfactory bulbUchida (2000)

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  • Neural codes for olfactory qualityOlfactory bulb hardwired response? e.g. cat odor

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  • Higher Level Olfactory ProcessingSignals from the olfactory bulb are sent to primary olfactory (piriform) cortex in the temporal lobe and amygdala.Amygdala plays a role in emotional reactions to odors.(then to) secondary olfactory (orbitofrontal) cortex in the frontal lobe.

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  • Here comes your footer Page *Higher order olfactory processing

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  • Here comes your footer Page *Higher order olfactory processinge.g. (Morrot et al., 2001)

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  • Here comes your footer Page *Higher order olfactory processingde Araujo et al.People were exposed to a mixture of a sweat-like smell and a cheddar cheese flavoring.On some trials, they saw the label cheddar cheese, and on others, the label body odor.Pleasantness ratings were higher for the cheddar cheese trials .fMRI scans showed activity in the orbitofrontal cortex to be associated with the pleasantness ratings.

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