Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten Engelska
ENGELSK GRAMMATIK Campuskursen
Kompendium: Engelsk grammatik Kurs: ENGAG1, ENGAL1 Engelska grundkurs (Campus) mne: Engelska Ansvarig lrare: Marie Tqvist
Karlstads universitet, 651 88 Karlstad
CONTENTS 3 Grammar Terms and Concepts Simple Clauses 6 Finite and Non-finite Clauses 7 Grammar Terms and Concepts Complex Clauses 10 Worksheets 1-8 26 Additional exercises 30 Keys (excluding worksheet keys) 39 Basic Grammar Terms: A Glossary 44 Lecture Notes
GRAMMAR TERMS AND CONCEPTS: SIMPLE CLAUSES
In this section, you will practise basic grammar terms and concepts. Learning the terminology is not a goal in itself. Its an aid to helping you understand and discuss grammar rules and difficulties. For this reason, its not so much a question of learning certain terminology by heart, but rather a question of understanding how the system works, how words are divided into word classes depending on their structure and use, and how sentences are made up of sentence constituents with various functions in the clause. As the time we have at our disposal in this course is limited, there will not be enough time to cover all the details, but please read the texts mentioned below carefully. In order for you to understand the rest of the course, you need to understand at least the most basic grammar terminology. The exercises focus on areas that students often find problematic, and it will give you the opportunity to practise the rules given. You will need a reference book when you are working with this section. In the following, I will refer to Hugo Olssons book Sprket: s fungerar det (abbreviated as HO below) but other books may also be used. Chapter 3 in Estling Vannestls A University Grammar of English (abbreviated as MEV below) gives a good general overview. You may also find Basic Grammar Terms in English: A Glossary (in this compendium) a useful guide. There is a key on p. 30 in this compendium, so you can check your progress while working. Comment: Students often find this section particularly challenging. Do not be afraid to ask about anything that you feel is unclear. If YOU dont understand it, then others probably dont understand it, either! It takes time and hard work to learn to understand how the system works, so my suggestion to you is that you go back and review parts of this section every week. I would also encourage you to come and ask me about anything you want me to explain further.
4Simple clauses: Word classes and sentence constituents (See HO pp. 20-21)
1. Word classes (Sw: ordklasser) and sentence constituents /clause elements (Sw: satsdelar) are two basic concepts in grammar. Why are both needed (i.e. what do they tell us about words and clauses)? 2. Many English words belong to more than one word class. Indicate to what word class each of the underlined words belong: a) I must perfect the operation to make the perfect robot. b) A will will be invalid if the person was mentally incapable when they made it. c) If theres no light on the ceiling, light a lamp to make the room light. d) Turn right at the corner, then make another right turn at the police station. e) A kindly person is one who behaves kindly. f) He did not feel so fine after getting a fine for speeding. g) An uncle of mine told me that Dickenss London is a mine of information about the city. 3. Noun phrases i) What is the head word and what modifiers (=attribut) can you find in the following noun phrases? a) Dans incredible gullibility b) a delicious breakfast on the porch c) the poor girl with the unusually long nose d) a very cheap tape recorder without any possibility of a mains connection ii) Some sentence constituents can consist of a noun phrase which ones? Give examples. (HO ch. 7). 4. Adjectives and adverbs modifiers and adverbials (HO pp. 35-45; 123-130) i) Mark all the adjectives and adverbs in the following sentences and indicate what their function is (i.e. what sentence constituents they are): a) Det var ett ovanligt trevligt frslag. b) Det var ett ovanligt men trevligt frslag. c) Anders handskades vldigt nonchalant med kvinnor. d) Kermit joddlar mycket lngsammare n Anton. e) Det var fullkomligt frdande. ii) What types of modifiers and adverbials can you find in the following sentences? a) The beautiful house over there is rather dilapidated these days. b) He has probably never met her many interesting relatives from Leeds. c) Walter related very loudly and clearly (in a very loud and clear voice) the story of the abominable snowman in the Himalayas. iii) What word classes can be modified by a modifier (Sw: attribut) and what word classes can be modified by an adverbial? 5. Predicative complements (Sw: predikatsfyllnad/predikativ) (HO p. 119-122) What two types of predicatve can you find in the following two sentences? a) Many people have called Giovanni the worlds greatest lover. b) Giovanni has been called the worlds greatest lover.
5 6. Indicate what sentence constituents the underlined phrases represent: a) They remained housewives - They hired housewives. b) The pianist played all night - The pianist played all the songs. c) The FBI handed over the mafia boss to the citys chief of police The FBI appointed the mafia boss the citys chief of police. d) Robinson works Fridays - Robinson trusts Friday. e) An incredible girl lives in Katmandu - The girl in Katmandu is amazing. f) The nurse weighed 55 kilos - The nurse weighed 55 hippos. g) The professors worked late - The professors were late. h) Did you put the book on the table - Did you read the book on the table? i) The way there is difficult to describe - There is no way there. j) Morgan was in Spain - Morgan was in good health. k) Justin looked after his little sister - Justin arrived after his little sister. 7. Analyse these sentences in terms of sentence constituents and word classes: a) Lawrence explained the problem to us. b) The indefatigable teacher wrote long handouts for his grateful students. c) They spent weeks looking for a book on Chomsky, the founder of transformational-generative grammar. d) There is probably a ten-pound note in my wallet. e) Egbert from Louisville seemed enormously talented. f) They felt rather lonely. g) Due to acute lack of space, Fidos master was not invited. h) Count Olivares died an extremely painful death. i) The following week the poor horse was promoted to consul. j) Funnily enough, it was incredibly hot during the main part of my vacation. k) The new alarm system of the company was considered completely foolproof.
6FINITE & NON-FINITE CLAUSES
In the next section (Complex clauses), we are going to do a bit more work on sentence analysis. This time, we are going to practise identifying the function of a subordinate clause in a main clause. It is important, therefore, that you learn to identify various types of clauses. Remember: the most central thing in a clause is the predicate (= a verb). In a finite clause, there is almost always a subject (the exception is imperative clauses) and the verb agrees with the subject. In a non-finite clause, the verb consists of the infinitive (/to/ go), the ing-form (going), or the past participle (gone)but there is usually no subject. Do the following exercise (key on p. 33): a) Are the underlined clauses finite or non-finite? 1. If you dont like the weather in northern California, wait a few minutes and it will change. 2. It is pretty safe to say that the last thing on anyones mind was the electricity bill. 3. Rice likes to be in control. 4. But when the meeting is over, Rice is the one who gets up and goes to a smaller meeting. 5. Shopping with her mother in segregated Birmingham, she was told to change in a storeroom
by the white saleswoman. 6. A friend credits Rice with coining one of Bushs favourite expressions. 7. She says she still cant read for pleasure. 8. When she was about 9 years old, the civil-rights movement arrived in Birmingham, which
became known as Bombingham. 9. Rice was a friend of one of the four little girls killed in the Birmingham church bombing of
September 1963. b) Divide the following sentences into clauses. Which clauses are finite and which are non-finite? Which is the main clause in each case? 1. Coren Calborn plans to spend the cash on a CD player for her car. 2. Karen Dean, who lives near Cincinnati, cant decide between a paint job for the kitchen and a
new dining-room set. 3. She is certain, though, that the money wont be going into savings. 4. Whether the checks will be sufficient medicine to cure the ailing economy is an open question. 5. Financial experts are closely monitoring how taxpayers spend their windfalls. 6. People will spend the money if they are feeling good about the future. 7. These days, Americans seem to be better shoppers than savers. 8. Many economists therefore expect that even people who say they plan on saving are likely to
pump it back into the economy. 9. Economies all across Asia are limping badly, hobbled by the slowdown in demand from the
United States. 10. Beijing is in the process of cutting the government in half from 8 million employees to 4
7GRAMMAR TERMS AND CONCEPTS: COMPLEX CLAUSES
In simple clauses, the sentence constituents consist of single words and phrases. In complex clauses (i.e. sentences containing at least one main clause and one subordinate clause), sentence constituents consist of entire clauses: a subordinate clause always functions as a sentence constituent in the larger main clause. A complex sentence has a hierarchical structure with clauses on many different levels which can