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GEOPHYSICAL MONITORING OF THE OIL PRODUCTION · PDF file1 GEOPHYSICAL MONITORING OF THE OIL PRODUCTION AND CO2 GEOLOGICAL STORAGE IN INTELLIGENT FIELDS Paulo Camargo Virgílio José

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GEOPHYSICAL MONITORING OF THE OIL PRODUCTION AND CO2 GEOLOGICAL STORAGE

IN INTELLIGENT FIELDS

Paulo Camargo

Virglio Jos Martins Ferreira Filho

Petroleum Engineering - POLI/COPPE Federal University of Rio de Janeiro UFRJ

P.O. Box 68548

Rua Moniz Arago N 360, Bloco 2, Cidade Universitria

Rio de Janeiro, 21941-594, RJ

B R A Z I L

Phone: (+55 21) 3938-3537

Abstract

The first intelligent fields (also called i-fields, e-fields, smart fields, integrated operations, and

others) are being installed in the Brazil. So a great technical knowledge needs to be acquired for a

successful performance. The geophysical reservoir monitoring in intelligent fields is a whole new

field of research, where different geophysical techniques are being tested for their effectiveness in

the monitoring the oil production and geological storage of CO2. In this article we show the

techniques that we are researching in these two perspectives. So that geophysical techniques, such

as 4D seismic, 4D Microseismic Monitoring, Microgravity, Seismic permanent using Fiber Optic and

others are discussed. Moreover, some aspects of the future vision of intelligent fields such as

nanotechnology are introduced.

Keywords: 4D seismic, 4D Microseismic Monitoring, Microgravity, Seismic permanent using

Fiber Optic

MONITORAMENTO GEOFSICO DA PRODUO DE LEO E ARMAZENAGEM GEOLGICA

DE CO2 EM CAMPOS INTELIGENTES

Resumo

Os primeiros campos inteligentes (tambm chamado de i-fields, e-fields, campos inteligentes,

operaes integradas, e outros) esto sendo instalados no Brasil nos dias hoje. De maneira que

um grande conhecimento tcnico precisa ser adquirido para um desempenho bem sucedido. O

monitoramento geofsico de reservatrios em campos inteligentes um campo de pesquisa

totalmente novo, onde diferentes tcnicas geofsicas esto sendo testadas para verificar a sua

eficcia no monitoramento da produo de petrleo e armazenamento geolgico de CO2. Neste

artigo mostramos as tcnicas que estamos pesquisando nestas duas perspectivas. De forma que

tcnicas geofsicas, tais como Ssmica 4D, Monitoramento Microssmico 4D, Microgravidade,

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Ssmica Permanente usando Fibra pticas e outros so discutidos. Alm disso, alguns aspectos da

viso de futuro de campos inteligentes como a nanotecnologia so introduzidos.

Palavras chave: Monitoramento geofsico, Armazenamento geolgico de CO2, Campos

Inteligentes.

1. Introduction

There is a consensus among high executives of the ecosystem oil/gas that the Technology

Progress will make a decisive role in the oil industry in the next 30 years. This fact has created the

interest in different companies by the development of Intelligent Fields. The geophysical reservoir

monitoring in these instrumented fields is a new research area, where a set the techniques are

being tested to verify its efficiency in the reservoir monitoring. These techniques can monitor the

reservoir in a variety of aspects. Two important aspects are oil production and CO2 storage. This

article begins showing the view of experts about the future of the oil fields. And the importance that

Intelligent Fields have in the future of the petroleum industry. Following we show some discussions

about these fields. Its advantages, associated technologies and the new technologies that in the

coming years will be incorporated. And with that is shown the role of geophysical monitoring within

the reality of Intelligent Fields. Finally we present the geophysical techniques that we are

researching. Our research is being conducted because, from our point of view in the Santos Basin

Pre-Salt, oil production operations and CO2 storage must be held within Smart Fields. Thus, oil

production, CO2 storage and Intelligent Fields have to be seen together.

2. A vision of the future

Recently in a series of articles published by the Center of Applied Insights IBM and IBM

Global Business Services (entitled Oil and Gas 2030, The Value of Smater Oil and Gas Field, and

others) is shown a study conducted among more than 100 high executives of the ecosystem oil/gas

around the world (Figure 1 shows the distribution of interviews by segments of the market) Edison

et al. [2011], Edwards et al. [2010]. The aim of this study was to understand the vision of the future

of these executives. Some very interesting information was obtained, for example, when asked

about the five external factors that impact nowadays more significantly their companies, 61% of the

executives responded that Technology Progress is the most important external factor. And when

asked about the future, that is, what external factors they consider will have greater impact on their

business in the coming decades, this number rises to 81%. This means that there is an almost

universal belief that Technology Progress will make a vital role in the oil industry in the coming

years. Figure 2 shows the results of this study.

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Figure 1: Interviews by market segment.

Another very important conclusion in this study is that the executives believe that Technology

Progress in the future will be more impactful for their companies than the Energy source availability

(see Figure 2). If we consider that in the future there will be a growing demand for energy, the

value of the Technology Progress increases in the future of the business. Literally, the conclusion

was the following: The challenge in the short term (30 years) is not the availability of new energy

sources, there is enough hydrocarbon resources in the world for the next century, but how to

develop existing sources efficiently and safely, having the technology as a key factor. There is a

consensus that the development of integrated operations involving technology, people and

processes creates opportunities to address the major challenges of the present and future of the oil

companies. This study has based investments of the IBM in the development of Integrated

Operations/Intelligent Fields.

Figure 2: External factors more significant in the view of future of the executives. Edwards et al.

(2010).

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3. Intelligent fields

The term Integrated Fields has received by different oil companies, different names, such as

I-fields, Smart Fields, Digital Oilfield, e-fields, Field of the Future. And they are undoubtedly the Oil

Fields of the Future, Al-Dhubaib (2011), Foss (2011). This fact has been admitted by a large

number of specialists. And the reason, are the great advantages that Intelligent Fields exhibit in

relation to conventional fields (Figure 3 shows a schematic representation of an Intelligent Field).

Below are listed some of these advantages:

Obtaining high-quality information in real time of the subsurface;

Proactive reservoir management in real time;

Increased efficiency;

Increased recovery factor;

Efficiency in the drilling wells;

Lower cost;

Real-time reservoir optimization, wells and facilities;

Improved water management.

The following technologies are associated with Intelligent Fields:

Real Time Reservoir Management ;

Real Time Drilling Control;

Remote Monitoring and Control of Facilities;

Surveillance Systems of the Production in Real Time;

Intelligent Wells;

Communication Technologies Involving Remote Data Transmission in Real Time and Data

Storage;

Integrated Asset Model;

Operations Integration Room for decision making, control, optimization and intervention;

Networks of sensors permanently installed, continuous seismic, etc. ..;

Administration system of the production;

Administration system of the knowledge.

And other;

In the future, Intelligent Fields will be impacted with technologies of Completations with Extreme

Reservoir Contact, Bionic Wells, and Nano Technologies such as:

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Nanomaterials to improve the flow assurance creating more robust equipments;

Nanofluids (smart fluids) with particles that enable a given fluid gets desired interwells properties;

Nanosensors to measure temperature in the formations;

Nanosensors to provide data on reservoir characterization and reservoir fluid flows.

And others.

Figure 3: A schematic representation of intelligent fields. Modified from Field of the Future of the

BP.

4. Geophysical reservoir monitoring in intelligent fields

Traditionally, the purpose of the Reservoir Monitoring is to observe what is happening to the

reservoir during production. So that the monitoring serves among other things to:

Identify in the regions interwells the bypassed or untapped oil;

Evaluation of the efficiency of sweeping;

Monitoring the movement of the heterogeneities;

Updating of the simulation models and through them to get better reservoir management.

Nowadays these tasks are accomplished through:

(1) Integrated Reservoir Simulation Models;

(2) 3D/4D seismic;

(3) Information from wells;

(4) And others;

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A theoretic