The Antecedents of Consumer- Generated Media Adoption for Travel Planning: A Literature Review Dandison C. Ukpabi University of Jyväskylä, Finland [email protected] m Heikki Karjaluoto University of Jyväskylä, Finland heikki.karjaluoto @jyu.fi

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Page 1: Bled 2016 presentation

The Antecedents of Consumer-Generated Media Adoption for Travel Planning: A Literature Review

Dandison C. UkpabiUniversity of Jyväskylä,

[email protected]

Heikki KarjaluotoUniversity of Jyväskylä,

[email protected]

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Table of


• Introduction• Research objectives• Research methods• Results• Discussion and contributions

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• Social media platforms have become powerful tools consumers use to spread word-of-mouth (WOM

• In the tourism and hospitality services industry, consumer-generated media (CGM) have become effective tools used by tourists to gather information to make travel decisions

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Introduction• 80% read reviews about a hotel before

embarking on a trip

• 53% will not book a hotel that has no reviews- Tsao et al. (2015)

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Introduction/Social mediaPlatforms inTourism and


Virtual communities e.g., Lonely

Planet, MySpace

Media sharing tools

e.g., YouTube, Flickr, Vimeo

Blogse.g., Xanga.com,


Microblogs e.g., Twitter,


Review sites e.g., TripAdvisor,


Social networking

e.g., Facebook, MySpace, LinkedIn,

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• To identify the antecedents of CGM adoption in travel planning;

• To identify the theories, models and frameworks used in these studies;

• To analyze the strengths of the antecedents in predicting CGM adoption in travel planning.

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- Literature Search

• Search terms used included:• “social media adoption in tourism”, • “e-WOM in tourism and travel”, • “Web 2.0 adoption in tourism and travel”,• “consumer-generated media in tourism and travel”, • “social networking in tourism and travel”, • “blogs in tourism and travel”, • “online communities in tourism and travel”, and • “virtual communities in tourism and travel”

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- Literature Search

• In the following databases:• Google Scholar• Science Direct, • SAGE, • Wiley, • Springer, • Emerald, • JSTOR, • IEEE, • Taylor & Francis and • Inderscience

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- Inclusion criteria

• quantitative• consumer-based• include measures for independent and

dependent variables• have a defined sample size • provide detailed results of the data


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- Literature Extraction

Journal Articles

PhD Dissertation

Conference Papers


51 2 1 54

29 journals

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Results- Theories- Models- Frameworks/

- Journal distribution

• 22 different and heterogeneous theories, models and frameworks were used

• Major ones included: TAM 14 (26%); TPB 5 (9%); ELM 3 (5%); TRA 3 (5%); UTAUT 1 (1.8%)

Tourism Journal;


Non-tourism Journal;


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Results- Geographical distribution

Africa Asia Australia EuropeNorth

America TotalCountriesTunisia 1 1China 5 5Hong Kong 1 1India 1 1Iran 2 2Jordan 1 1Malaysia 1 1Republic of Korea 2 2Singapore 1 1Taiwan 11 11Turkey 1 1UAE 1 1Australia 2 2Cyprus 1 1Denmark 1 1Italy 2 2Spain 6 6Sweden 1 1United Kingdom 2 2USA 10 10Canada 1 1Total 1 27 2 13 11 54

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Results- Conceptual framework

Adoption antecedents

Intrinsic Factors Enjoyment Involvement Knowledge Experience Satisfaction Benefit

 Extrinsic Factors Social influence Expertise Homophily Reputation Trust

Adoption• Intention • Usage

Moderators Novelty Valence Aesthetics Argument quality Information quality Information


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Results- CGM Antecedents

• The study uncovers 61 different antecedents of CGM

• Most frequently used ones are:

Code Construct Frequency

ATT Attitude 16

PU Perceived usefulness 13

PEOU Perceived ease of use 11

TRU Trust 8

SI Social influence/subjective norm 8

ENJ Enjoyment 8

EMP Empathy 3

PBC Perceived behavioral control 3

SC Source credibility 3

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Results- Analysis of Path coefficients

• We extracted the tested path coefficients and their relationships and theories in the 54 reviewed studies E.g.

No Author(s) Path coefficients (β) Theory

1Filieri & McLeay (2014)


2Parra-López et al. (2011)

COS→INT (.01); BEN→INT (.44); INC→INT (.36)


3Book et al. (2015)


4Casaló et al. (2010)

PU→ATT (.218); PU→INT (.301); PU→TRU (.547); TRU→ATT (.600); TRU→INT (.306)


53Ting et al. (2014)

PU→ATT (.32); REP→ATT (.36); ALT→ATT (.27); TRU→ATT (.34), SI→INT (.25); ATT→INT (.67)


54Filiery et al. (2015)


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Results- Analysis of Path coefficients


Number of


Number of


Attitude - - 15 .511Perceived usefulness 6 .180 10 .432Trust 6 .362 6 .352Perceived ease of use 5 .264 5 .347Subjective norm/social influence

- - 6 .343

Enjoyment - - 3 .335

• We then analyzed the effect sizes of the frequently used independent variables on the dependent variables.

• Trust predicted attitude more than other variables.

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• The study was to provide a review of consumer-generated media in tourism and travel.

• We analyzed the articles and proposed a framework for consumer-generated media adoption.

• We also identified 22 heterogeneous and distinct theories, models and frameworks with 61 different antecedents and path coefficients of their relationships.

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• Consumer adoption of CGM depends on the:

User characteristicsSource characteristics

Moderating factorsContent characteristics

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• First, our framework identified antecedents that predict the adoption of CGM in tourism and travel.

• These antecedents were based on intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of the user and on moderating factors.

• The identified theories and the antecedents with their path coefficients from different studies provide a solid theoretical background for subsequent research (Okoli & Schabram, 2010)

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• The contributions of scholars from the information systems field as evidenced from non-tourism based journals show that research on social media in tourism and travel is growing, and not only within the domain of management science.

• The identification of trust as having the strongest effect on attitude is in line with earlier studies in which trust has been identified as an important criterion for using CGM (Parra-López et al., 2011)

• Emerging markets in India and Africa are lagging behind in research in this stream.

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Limitations• It was based on quantitative studies only

• The review was based on CGM and did not incorporate marketer-generated media

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Future research


• Studies in Africa, India and South America: strong emerging markets

• Other social media platforms like YouTube, Lonely Planet, etc.

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Appreciation Thank you!

Dandison C. UkpabiUniversity of Jyväskylä, Finland

[email protected]

Heikki KarjaluotoUniversity of Jyväskylä, Finland

[email protected]