Teori motivasi

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  • Rery Indra Kusuma

    Wiluyo Karyanto

  • Human Relations

    The study of the behavior of individuals

    and groups in organizational settings.

  • The Nature of HR

    Motivation : The inner drive that directs a persons behavior toward goals.

    Morale : An employees attitude toward his or her job, employer, and colleagues.

    intrinsic rewards : the personal satisfaction and enjoyment felt after attaining a goal

    extrinsic rewards : benefits and/or recognition received from someone else

  • The Motivation Process

    More money for

    unexpected medical expenses

    Need

    Ask for a raise

    Work harder to gain a promotion

    Look for a higher-paying job

    Steal

    More money

    Goal-directed behavior

    Need Satisfaction

  • Historical Perspectives on Employee

    Motivation

    Classical Theory of Motivation (Frederick W. Taylor) : theory

    suggesting that money is the sole motivator for workers

    The Hawthorne Studies (Elton Mayo)

  • Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

    Self-

    Actualization

    Needs

    Esteem Needs

    Social Needs

    Security Needs

    Physiological Needs

  • Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

    Hygiene Factors

    Company policies

    Supervision

    Working conditions

    Salary

    Security

    Motivational Factors

    Achievement

    Recognition

    The work itself

    Responsibility

    Advancement

  • McGregors Theory X and Theory Y

    - Theory X : Management view that assumes workers generally dislike work and must be forced to do their jobs.

    - Theory Y : Management view that assumes workers like to work and under proper conditions, employees will seek responsibility to satisfy social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.

  • Theory Z

    A management philosophy that

    stresses employee participation in all

    aspects of company decision making.

  • Comparison of American, Japanese, and

    Theory Z Management Styles

    American Japanese Theory Z

    Duration ofemployment

    Relatively shortterm; workerssubject to layoffswhen businessslows

    Lifelong; nolayoffs

    Long term; layoffsrare

    Rate ofpromotion

    Rapid Slow Slow

    Amount ofspecialization

    Considerable;worker developsexpertise in onearea only

    Minimal; workerdevelops expertisein all aspects of theorganization

    Moderate; workerlearns all aspectsof the organization

  • Comparison of American, Japanese, and

    Theory Z Management Styles

    American Japanese Theory Z

    Decisionmaking

    Individual Consensual; inputfrom all concernedparties isconsidered

    Consensual; emphasison quality

    Responsibility Assigned to theindividual

    Shared by thegroup

    Assigned to theindividual

    Control Explicit andformal

    Less explicit andless formal

    Informal but withexplicit performancemeasures

    Concern forworkers

    Focus is on workonly

    Focus extends toworker's whole life

    Focus includes worker'slife and family

  • Other Motivational Theories

    Can I get it?

    Do I want it?

    Equity Theory Expectancy Theory

    What I

    put in

    What I

    get back

  • Strategies for Motivating Employees

    Behavior Modification : changing behavior and

    encouraging appropriate actions by relating the

    consequences of behavior to the behavior itself

    Job Design

  • Job Design Strategies

    Job Rotation : Exposes employees to a variety of tasks as they move from one job to another.

    Job Enlargement : Teaches employees new tasks in their present job.

    Job Enrichment : Gives employees more control and authority in their present job, along with additional tasks.

  • Flexible Scheduling Strategies

    Flextime : a program that allows employees to choose their starting and ending times, provided that they are at work during a specified core period

    Compressed Work Week : a four-day (or shorter) period during which an employee works 40 hours

    Job Sharing : performance of one full-time job by two people on part time hours

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