Chuong I_ Tong Quan Mang May Tinh

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MNG V TRUYN THNGB mn CNTT Khoa Tin hc Thng mi

MNG V TRUYN THNG Phn phi tit hc L thuyt: 30 tit Thc hnh/Tho lun: 6 tit SV t chun b TH/Tho lun: 9 tit nh gi kt qu - D lp/Thc hnh/Tho lun/Bi tp: 10% - Kim tra gia k: 30% - Thi cui k: 60%

MC TIUHc phn trang b cho sinh vin hiu bit v mng v vic truyn thng trn mng my tnhSinh vin c trang b nhng kin thc c bn v mng my tnh: Cc thnh phn cu thnh mng my tnh, kin trc mng my tnh, truyn thng tin trn mng my tnh. Sinh vin c hiu bit su hn v mng ni b trong mt t chc, doanh nghip. Sinh vin c cp nht cc ng dng truyn thng mng v truyn thng lin mng Internet.

NI DUNGChng 1. GII THIU CHUNG Chng 2. M HNH OSI Chng 3. M HNH V NG DNG CA TCP/IP Chng 4. MNG LAN Chng 5. NG DNG MNG MY TNH V TRUYN THNG

TI LIU THAM KHO1. Gio trnh Mng v truyn thng H Thng Mi 2. Mng my tnh Ngc Vn An, NXB Gio dc, 2006 3. Mng my tnh v cc h thng m - Nguyn Thc Hi, NXB Gio dc, 1999 4. Gio trnh h thng mng my tnh CCNA Sememster 1 Nguyn Hng Sn, NXB Lao ng X hi, 2004 5. Computer Network, 4th Edition, A.S.Tanenbaum, Prentice Hall, 2003 6. v.v..

Bn c th lm g khi kt ni vi Internet ? t v xemNgi nh hon thnh cc cng vic c giao v bo co kt qu Tham d cuc hp cng ton th cng ty m khng cn n tr s b mi nht rp ch cn g bn phm i siu th ngm hng ho m ch cn nhng ci Click chut Ni chuyn vi ngi bn cch c nghn cy s ch cn mt ci headphone

Internet = lin mng = mng ca cc mng

Mng ???

Chng 1: Gii thiu chung1.1. M u 1.1.1. Lch s pht trin 1.1.2. ng dng v dch v mng 1.2. Khi nim c bn 1.2.1. Mng my tnh 1.2.2. Thit b mng 1.2.3. ng truyn vt l 1.2.4. Topo 1.2.5. Giao thc 1.2.6. Phn loi mng 1.2.7. Qun tr mng v h iu hnh mng 1.2.8. Kin trc mng v chun ha mng

1.1.1. Lch s pht trinGiai on I (60s): Mng x l gm mt my tnh x l trung tm v cc trm u cui. Giai on II: Mng giai on I tch hp thm thit b tp trung (lu tr tm thi thng tin) v b dn knh (gp v chuyn song song cc knh thng tin). Giai on III: Mng giai oan II tch hp b tin x l gim ti cho my tnh trung tm khi s lng cc trm u cui tng nhanh.

Lch s pht trin (t)Giai on 4 (70s):Mng gm cc my tnh c kt ni vi nhau trc tip. Ngi dng c lp kt ni v chia s vi nhau thng qua vic s dng modem quay s v cc mng truyn thng.Modem ng dy in thoi Modem

Thit b u cui

My tnh trung tm

Hnh 1.1. M hnh truyn d liu t xa u tin

Tm tt lch s mng my tnh1994: INTERNET -> siu mng kinh doanh 1988: Tn gi INTERNET thay th cc tn gi khc

1983: Arpanet tch thnh MILNet v Arpanet Gia 1980s: Chia s tp tin bng Modem 1980: IBM a ra PC u tin 1977: Apple gii thiu PC u 1970s: Minicomputer ra i Cui 1950s: Mch tch hp IC 1940s: C in t ,bn dn9/26/2008 11

1.1.2. ng dng v dch v mngMc tiu mng: Tng cng tnh hiu qu v gim chi phChia s ti nguyn thit b phn cng (my in), phn mm (chng trnh ng dng) Chia s thng tin: To ra mi trng truyn thng mnh gia nhiu ngi s dng trn phm vi a l rng Qun tr v h tr tp trung: Tng tin cy ca h thng: Nu mt my tnh hay mt n v d liu no trong mng b hng th lun c th s dng mt my tnh khc hay mt bn sao ca n v d liu.

1.1.2. ng dng v dch v mngVic pht trin mng my tnh to ra cc ng dng mi. Mt s ng dng c nh hng quan trng n ton x hi: kh nng truy xut cc chng trnh v d liu t xa (Telnet, truyn tp tin), kh nng thng tin lin lc d dng v hiu qu, to mi trng giao tip thun li gia nhng ngi dng khc nhau (th in t), kh nng tm kim thng tin nhanh chng trn phm vi ton th gii (dch v tm kim thng tin),...

1.1.2. ng dng v dch v mngPhm vi ng dngTrong cc t chc: D liu c cp nht kp thi; mt ng dng ni ny c th chia s cho ni khc Trong cng ng: a con ngi ti gn nhau hn qua cc dch v nh email, www, chat,... Trong kinh doanh: Mng my tnh tr thnh mt phn khng th thiu ca cc doanh nghip, ngn hng, thng mi in t l mt xu hng tt yu trong kinh doanh

1.2. Nhng khi nim c bn1.2.1. Mng my tnh 1.2.2. Thit b mng 1.2.3. ng truyn vt l 1.2.4. Topo 1.2.5. Giao thc 1.2.6. Phn loi mng 1.2.7. Qun tr mng v h iu hnh mng 1.2.8. Kin trc mng v chun ha mng

1.2.1.Mng my tnhKhi nim:Mng my tnh l mt tp hp cc my tnh v cc thit b lin quan c kt ni bng cc thit b truyn thng thc hin vic chia s d liu, v cc thit b ngoi vi nh cng hay my in, Mng my tnh l mt tp hp cc my tnh v thit b c ni vi nhau bi ng truyn vt l theo mt kin trc no .

Khng c mng

C mng

26/09/2008

B mn CNTT TMT

Silde 17

Mng cc b n gin:

H thng mng tng qut c cu thnh bing bin mng ( Network Edge): Gm cc my tnh (Host) v cc chng trnh ng dng mng (Network Application) ng trc mng ( Network Core): h thng mng ca cc thit b chn ng, lm nhim v chn ng v chuyn tip thng tin m bo s trao i thng tin thng sut gia hai my tnh trn hai nhnh mng cch xa nhau. Mng truy cp, ng truyn vt l (Access Network , physical media): Gm cc ng truyn ti thng tin cho php ni cc my tnh vo cc router ngoi bin. Mng truy nhp c th l nhng loi mng sau: Mng truy cp t nh, v d nh s dng hnh thc modem dial qua ng in thoi hay ng ADSL. Mng cc b cho cc cng ty, x nghip. Mng khng dy.

1.2.3. Thit b mngThit b ca ngi dng cui (End-user devices):Cc thit b ca ngi dng cui cung cp cho ngi dng mt kt ni n mng c gi l mt host (tm dch l mt trm, v d nh my tnh). Host c kt ni mt cch vt l n mi trng mng thng qua cc card iu hp mng (Network Interface Card _NIC).

1.2.3. Thit b mng (t)Cc thit b (kt ni) mng (Network devices): Bao gm tt c cc thit b kt ni cc thit b ngi dng cui li vi nhau gip chng c th truyn tin.B lp (Repeater) B tp trung (Hub) Cu ni (Bridge) B chuyn mch (Switch) B nh tuyn (Router) Modem (iu ch v gii iu ch)

1.2.3. Thit b mng (t)Repeater l mt thit b mng c dng ti sinh tn hiu b suy hao do tn tht nng lng trong khi truyn. Hub cho php tp trung cc kt ni bng cch gom mt nhm cc host v mng s nhn din nhm cc host ny nh mt ch th n l m khng nh hng ti hot ng truyn s liu. Hub cng c kh nng ti sinh tn hiu. Bridge chuyn i dng d liu cng nh qun l hot ng truyn d liu c bn gia cc mng cc b (LAN) c kin trc khc nhau. Kim tra xem c cho d liu truyn qua bridge hay khng.

1.2.3. Thit b mng (t)Switch khng chuyn i kiu d liu truyn nhng n c th cho php chuyn d liu ti ng kt ni thc s cn d liu ny. Router c tt c cc kh nng cp trn: ti sinh tn hiu, tp trung nhiu kt ni, chuyn i kiu d liu truyn v qun l hot ng truyn d liu. Router l mt thit b c bit cho php cc mng cc b LAN c th kt ni vo mng din rng WAN. Mt cp modem c yu cu cho cc cuc truyn thng ng di qua mi tuyn thu bao (in thoi, ADSL, cp quang )

1.2.3. Thit b mng (t) Cc biu tng thit b kt ni mng

1.2.4. ng truyn vt l mc thp nht, tt c cng vic truyn thng gia cc my tnh bao gm vic to m d liu (cc bit 0, 1) theo mt dng nng lng (xung in, nh sng, sng ) v gi dng nng lng ngang qua mt phng tin truyn ti. ng truyn vt l l ng dng truyn d liu gia cc my tnh. D liu c th c truyn qua mng thng qua ng truyn khng dy hoc s dng cp. Bng thng dng xc nh bao nhiu thng tin truyn t im ny n im khc trong mt n v thi gian. Bng thng l hu hn v b gii hn bi cc ng truyn v cc nh lut vt l.Bng thng ca tn hiu tng t (Hz) Bnf thng ca tn hiu s (bps)

ng truyn s dng cpCp ngVt liu kim loi, truyn cc xung in th hin cho cc bit 0, 1. Phm vi truyn hp, tc nhanh Dy kim loi khng t tin D lp t (so vi cp quang) c s dng trong hu ht cc mng cc b (LAN).

Cp ngCp ng trc:Li ng V cch in Lp v dn kim loi hay si kim an li chng nhiu. Lp v nha Loi mng (thinnet) vi ng knh 0.64cm c th truyn tn hiu khong 185m. Loi dy (thicknet) vi ng knh 1.27cm c th truyn tn hiu khong 500m.

Cp ng(t)Cp xon iGm mt hay nhiu cp ng dy ng c xon vo nhau nhm lm gim nhiu in t gy ra bi mi trng xung quanh v gia chng vi nhau.

Cp UTP khng c lp chng nhiu (UTP-Unsheilding Twisted Pair) c nm loi v c th truyn d liu vi khong cch 100 m, vi tc t 4 Mbps ti 100 Mbps ty vo loi UTP. Cp STP chng nhiu (STP- Sheilding Twisted Pair) l loi cp c lp chng nhiu gip truyn d liu i xa hn nhiu so vi UTP. ScTP (Screened TP): Lai ghp gia UTP v STP

Cp ng (t)u im ng trc Nhc im ng dng-Nhiu dng truyn d liu

- Suy hao tn hiu t hn -t tin v kh khn nn phm vi truyn ln trong lp t do kch c hn (thicknet),

bao gm c v tuyn -S dng lm ng trc trong mt mng cc b (Ethernet)

STP/ScTP

-Chng nhiu -Chy dy c xa hn

so vi cp UTP

- Khng chy dy c xa nh cp ng trc - t tin v kh khn trong lp t so vi UTP - Khng chy dy c xa nh cp ng trc-Truyn d liu, ging ni - Dng trong hu ht cc

UTP

-R tin -Kch thc nh, d lp t (u ni RJ45)

kin trc mng cc b

ng truyn s dng cpCp quang (Fiber Optic Cable)Vt liu thy tinh, cht do truyn cc xung nh sng th hin cho cc bit 0, 1. Phm vi truyn rng do t suy hao (nhiu km), truyn nhanh Chng tp m tt, truyn nhiu d liu hn cp ng Lp t kh khn (so vi cp ng) Truyn im ni im c ly xa, bng thng ln (trn cc ng trc ca mng cc b hoc cc kt ni vi mng din rng).

Cp quang(t)Dy dn trung tm l 1 hoc 1 b si thy tinh c th truyn dn tn hiu quang. Lp v bc c tc dng phn x cc tn hiu tr li gim s mt mt tn hiu. Lp v bo v plastic

31

ng truyn khng dyS dng tia hng ngoi (infared) S dng tia Laser S dng sng radio (sng ngn, UHF, VHF ) S dng sng in thoi di ng (vi sng) S dng v tinh

1.2.4. Topology (Topo)nh ngha:Topo mng l cu cu trc lin kt mngTopo vt l:l cch b tr cc thit b v dy ni trong mng. Topo ca mng din rng (MAN, WAN) thng thng l ni n s lin kt gia cc mng cc b thng qua cc b dn ng (router) v knh vin thng. Topo vt l mng cc b (LAN) c dng chun: Hnh tuyn (Bus), Hnh vng (Ring), Hnh sao (Star), Dng li (Mesh) Hnh sao m rng, Phn cp Topo logic: Cc dng kt ni ca topo logic da trn cch thc truyn d liu trong mng. Dng im ni im (point to point) Dng im ni a im / qung b (point to multipoint)

Topo vt lMng hnh tuyn (bus): Cc thit b c ni v vi nhau trn mt trc dy cp truyn ti tn hiu chnh. Pha hai u dy cp c bt bi hai thit b gi l terminator. Mng hnh sao (star): Cc my tnh c ni trc tip vo mt b tp trung ni kt (router, switch, hub). D liu t mt my qua b tp trung ni kt c chuyn ti my khc Mng hnh vng (ring): Mng c b tr theo dng vng trn. ng dy cp c b tr lm thnh mt vng khp kn. Tn hiu chy quanh vng theo mt chiu no . Mng hnh li (mesh): Mi mt my c ni ti tt c hoc my cn li