Đặc Điểm Của Thịt Heo, Thịt Bò

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C IM CA THT HEO, THT B, THT G

C IM CA THT HEO, THT B, THT GTRNG I HC BCH KHOA H CH MINHKHOA K THUT HA HCB MN CNG NGH CH BIN THT

Tht l mt trong nhng thc phm c gi tr dinh dng cao, cung cp axit amin cn thit, cc cht bo, cht khong, vitamin v mt s cc cht thm. Tht cc loi ni chung ngho canxi, giu photpho.Tht l ngun vitamin nhm B trong ch yu l B1 tp trung phn tht nc. Cc vitamin tan trong cht bo ch c gan, thn. gan, thn, tim, no c nhiu Cholesterol v photphatit. Thnh phn ha hc v gi tr dinh dng ca thtTht l mt trong nhng thc phm c gi tr dinh dng cao, tht cc ng vt mu nng nh tht ln, tht b, tht gia cm. c cha nhiu axit amin cn thit, cc cht bo, cht khong, vitamin v mt s cc cht thm hay cn gi l cht chit xut. Tht cc loi ni chung ngho canxi, giu photpho.2Thnh phn ha hc ca cc loi tht

Tht l mt trong nhng thc phm c gi tr dinh dng cao, tht cc ng vt mu nng nh tht ln, tht b, tht gia cm. c cha nhiu axit amin cn thit, cc cht bo, cht khong, vitamin v mt s cc cht thm hay cn gi l cht chit xut. Tht cc loi ni chung ngho canxi, giu photpho.3Thnh phn ha hc ca cc loi tht

M c c chia ra lm ba loi: m c vn ngang, m c trn v m c tim.M c vn ngang m bo mi c ng theo mun ca con vt, chim t l ln trong c th, l m c gi tr thc phm cao nht. M c trn v m c tim co gin khng ty , chim t l nh. Cc loi m cTht l mt trong nhng thc phm c gi tr dinh dng cao, tht cc ng vt mu nng nh tht ln, tht b, tht gia cm. c cha nhiu axit amin cn thit, cc cht bo, cht khong, vitamin v mt s cc cht thm hay cn gi l cht chit xut. Tht cc loi ni chung ngho canxi, giu photpho.5M c vn ngang l thnh phn c dinh dng cao nht.L ni tp trung ca cc protein hon ho, vitamin, cht khong, cht ngm raHn 85% protein m c l protein hon thinD b phn gin di tc dng ca cc men tiu ha (pepsin, tripsin, chimotripsin,)M c vn ngangT l cc m trong gia sc (%)

Cu trc ca m c tht

Loi mTht bTht lnM cM mM lin ktM xng v snM mu57 623 169 1217 294 - 540 5815 466 88 187,5 8Cu to m c vn ngang

Mt ct dcb. Mt ct ngang1. Vn m2. Mng lin kt 3. Mch mu 4. Si cCu to m c vn ngang

Hm lng m m trong c th ng vt thuc cc loi khc nhau c gii hn dao ng t 1 40% theo khi lng sng ty theo ging, tui, mc bo v v tr tch ly m. Thnh phn m m gm lipit (70 97%), protein (0,5 7,2%), nc (2 21%) v mt lng nh lipoid, cht khong, sc t v vitamin.

M M

T bo m m

M LIN KT

M lin kt si xp2. Chm colagen3. Si elastinCc dy chng cu to c lin kt cc xng vi nhau thnh khp cu to t m lin kt. Mng xng v mng sn bao ph b mt xng v sn cng c cu to t m lin kt.Thnh phn ha hc: nc(57,662%); protein2140%); lipid(13,3%); khong(0,40,7%). Cc dy chng cu to c lin kt cc xng vi nhau thnh khp cu to t m lin kt. Mng xng v mng sn bao ph b mt xng v sn cng c cu to t m lin kt.Thnh phn ha hc trung bnh ca m lin kt gm: nc (57,662%); protein (2140%); lipid (13,3%); khong (0,40,7%).

11M xng l mt trong cc loi m lin kt. B xng ng vt c cu to t m xng. Xng gm c cht c bn c to ra lp b mt v cht xp bn trong. Cht c bn c ca m xng gm c phn hu c thm mui khong cha trung bnh 20 25% nc, 75 80% cht kh. M sn cu to t cht c bn c, trong c cc thnh phn t bo v cc si colagen, elastin.M XNG, M SNTrong mu cha 16,4 18,5% protein; 79 82% nc; 0,6 0,7% cht hu c phi protein v 0,8 1% cht khong. Mu gm c cc thnh phn hu tnh v huyt tng lng.Sau khi phng tit bnh thng, trong sc tht ng vt cn tn ti khong 0,5 1,2% mu theo khi lng sng. Protein ca mu d tiu ha bi cc enzyme tiu ha.

M MUMyoglobin v Hemoglobin u l nhng sc t c kh nng vn chuyn oxi . Hemoglobin c ch yu trong mu, tu xng, myoglobin c trong c. V oxi gn vi myoglobin rt cht nn l sc t c li nht i vi cc c hot ng tch cc. Myoglobin l sc t quyt nh mu sc ca tht.Myoglobin c cu to gm nhm ngoi l nhm Heme v phn t Globin. Myoglobin l protein c cu trc bc 3. Heme gm nguyn t Fe v vng Protoporphyrin. Nguyn t Fe c th c ho tr II hoc ho tr III. Trng thi oxi ho ca Fe (Fe2+ hoc Fe3+) v bn cht cc phi t ni Fe (O2, NO, CO) l nguyn nhn lm thay i mu sc ca tht.Myoglobin v cc bin i mu sc ca tht

Myoglobin v cc bin i mu sc ca tht

Lng Myoglobin thay i tu tng loi m, tng loi, tui, gii tnh dn n mu sc tht cng thay i theo. tui cng cao th lng Myoglobin cng nhiu nn tht ca con vt gi c mu m hn ca con vt con. Nhng bin i ca Myoglobin lm thay i mu sc ca tht

S bin i ca ng vt sau khi cht

Da vo nhng biu hin bn ngoi, ngi ta chia mt cch quy c nhng s bin i tht, c sau khi git thnh 3 thi k:- T cng sau khi git- Chin ti- T phnS bin i tip theo ca tht sau 3 thi k ny l s thi ra.

S bin i ca protein tht trong qu trnh bo qun

Gm cc qu trnh:- Phn hy glycogen thnh acid lactic.pH t im trung ha thnh pH acid.- Phn hy glycogen thnh cc glucid c tnh kh (glyco phn).- Phn hy acid creatinphosphoric- Phn hy ATP- Kt hp actin vi myozyn thnh phc cht khng tan(to rn ca m c) - S pht trin t cng hon ton xy ra vi thi gian khc nhau ph thuc vo c im ng vt va cc iu kin xung quanh.- Vo lc ny, rn ca tht tng 25%, cn ct tng ln 2 ln.Tht nh th s c rn ln k c sau khi nu.- Tht trng thi t cng sau khi git: tiu ha bi pepsin km, hu nh b mt mi thm v v sn c trng thi luc.

S t cng sau khi git

T cng sau khi git ca cc bp c l kt qu ca s pht trin ca qu trnh ha sinh phc tp do enzyme m c trng ca n khc vi cc qu trnh sng. Tht giai on cng xc cha thch hp trong s dng ch bin, v cha cho hng thm v ngon, kh nng hydrat ha km lm cho tht luc b cng, kh qut, nc luc canh b c, khng c v ngt m .

19Chin ti, l nhng bin i v tnh cht ca tht gy nn bi s t phn. So vi tht trng thi t cng th n d b tc ng bi enzyme tiu ha hn.

S chn ti ca tht

T cng

Chn ti

C ch ca qu trnh t cng v chn ti

S phn gii protein km theo ph hy cc thnh phn cu trc hnh thi hc ca m c. Do :+ rn ca tht gim i.+ S tch dch tht tng ln.+ Tht c mu sc hung nu r.+Tht tr nn chua v c mi kh chu hn.Nu tht ngui khng ng quy cch, cc enzyme c sn trong tht pht trin mnh phn hy protein thnh NH3, H2S,Hin tng xy ra nhit 400C v thiu oxy gy ra.

S t phn Tht t phn c trng thi cm quan khng tt:+ C mi chua kh chu+ B mt ngoi i khi c mu xanh+ su trong khi tht c mi hi, mu sc i khi hoc nu+ Khng c vi sinh vt gy thi+ Khng c hi cho sc khe ngi tiu dung

S t phnS bin i hp cht protein ng tr quan trng nht trong s phn hy thi ra do hot ng sng ca cc vi sinh vt phn gii protein bn ngoi xm nhp vo cng vi cc enzyme sn c trong tht. S phn hy (thi ra)S phn hy (thi ra)

Tht heo cung cp Viatmin B tng hp (riboflavin, niacin, thiamine) nhiu hn cc loi tht khc, giu km, v pht pho.

THT HEOAcid aminTryptophanThreonineIsoleucineLeucineMethionineCystineHm lng(g)0.3381.2341.2602.1770.7120.344Acid aminPhenylalanineTyrosineValineArginineHistidineAlanineHm lng(g)1.0860.9361.4731.7231.0671.603Acid aminAspartic acidA.GlutamicGlycineProlineSerineProteinHm lng(g)2.5124.2151.4091.1581.12827.32 gBng : Thnh phn cc acid amin c trong 100g tht ln ti.

THT HEOBng : Hm lng thnh phn bo c trong 100g tht ln ti.Tng bo13.92 (g)Saturated5.230Monounsaturated6.190Polyunsaturated1.200Bng : Hm lng vitamin bo c trong 100g tht ln ti.Vitamin B60.464 mgVitamin B120.70 gCholine93.9 mgVitamin C0.6 mgVitamin D53 IU

THT HEOBng: Hm lng vi khong c trong 100g tht ln ti.Vi khongmgCa19Fe0.87Mg28P246K423Na62Zn2.39

V tr nhng ming tht heo

Phn thtH s % tnh theo khi lng thtH s % tnh theo thnh phn ha hckcal/kgThtMDaXngNcProtetinLipidTroVai66,922,15,410,957,812,428,80,93190Lng46,538,16,98,554,912,232,00,93480ai lng bng46,538,16,98,554,912,232,00,93480Ngc43,440,58,97,254,410,834,00,83600Mng i57,525,58,09,064,215,719,01,12410Cng chn trc4718,734,363,215,620,01,22500Cng chn sau36,122,341,667,616,814,51,22040Bng:Ty l cac thanh phn nac, m, da va xng tai cac vi tri

TT Gi tr pH C di lng C tht lng C mng C i 1 pHi 5,81b 0,16 6,14a 0,06 5,94b 0,10 6,10a 0,10 2 pHu 5,59b 0,06 5,76a 0,08 5,59bc 0,05 5,69ac 0,05 Bng: S thay i v gi tr pH ca tht ln King St sau git m

- pHi: pH xc nh c thi im 45 pht sau git m- pHu: pH xc nh c thi im 24 gi sau git m

THT BTht b cha nhiu st, protein, kali, axit amin. b sung nng lng cho h c v tng sc do dai ca c th mt cch hiu qu. Bng: Hm lng acid amin c trong tht b.Acid amineHm lng % trong protidLysine8.1Methionine2.3Tryptophan1.1Phenylalanine4Threonine4Valine5.7Leucine8.4Isoleucine5.1Arginine6.6Histidine2.9

KhongCaMgFeKNaPHm lng25,5211,531351183THT BBng: Hm lng khong mg trong 100g thtBng: Hm lng vitamin trong 100g tht bLoi vitaminThiaminRiboflavinNiacinB6B12Hm lng (mg)0,050,096,70,561,1

THT BBng : Hm lng thnh phn bo c trong 100g tht ln ti.Tng bo13.92 (g)Saturated5.230Monounsaturated6.190Polyunsaturated1.200Bng : Hm lng vitamin bo c trong 100g tht ln ti.Vitamin B60.464 mgVitamin B120.70 gCholine93.9 mgVitamin C0.6 mgVitamin D53 IU

V tr nhng ming tht b

tt c cc loi b, pH c thn gim nhanh t 1 n 12 gi sau git tht v tip tc gim ti thi im 48 gi. pH n nh trong khong thi gian t 48 gi n 8 ngy sau git tht

Mu sc

Mu ca tht lin quan mt thit vi hm lng myoglobin O2 v cc dng chuyn ho ca myoglobin. Hm lng myoglobin trong tht b l 3-6mg/g v ln hn trong tht heo v tht g nn mu ca tht b m hni vi tt c loi b, cc gi tr mu sc (L*, a*, b*) c xu hng tng t thi im 12 gi n 48 gi v n nh n 8 ngy37

THT GTht gia cm thuc loi tht trng c nhiu protein, lipid, khong v vitamin hn so vi tht . Bng: Hm lng vi khong c trong 100g tht ln ti.Acid amineHm lng % trong protidLysine8.1Methionine3.1Tryptophan1.3Phenylalanine3.8Threonine4.7Valine-Leucine-Isoleucine-Arginine6.9Histidine2.3

KhongKPCaMgFeNaMnZnCuHm lng24521414271,07710,0181,020,05THT GBng: Thnh phn khong trong 100g tht (n v: mg)Bng: Thnh phn vitamin trong 100g tht (n v: mg)VitaminB1 (mg)B2 (mg)B6 (mg)Folate(mcg)B12(mcg)A(UI)E (mg)K(mcg)D(UI)Hm lng0,0660,1190,5640,32930,270,35V tr nhng ming tht g

Dinh dng c g (khng da, xng)Chn g i g (khng da)i gCnh g Cnh g (khng da)Tht g (khng xng, khng da)Tht g Nng lng (Calo)114161119221222126119215Protein (g)21,219,319,717,318,32221,