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Linux 基础知识讲座

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Linux 基础知识讲座. 索引. Linux 简介 主流的 Linux 发行版 Linux 下的文件系统 Linux 下的常用命令 Linux 下的常用软件 Linux 下软件的安装方法 Linux 下的编程. Linux 简介. 简单地说, Linux 是一套免费使用和自由传播的类 Unix 操作系统。这个系统是由世界各地的成千上万的程序员设计和实现的。其目的是建立不受任何商品化软件的版权制约、全世界都能自由使用的 Unix 兼容产品。. Linux 的出现. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Linux 基础知识讲座

  • Linux

  • LinuxLinuxLinuxLinuxLinuxLinuxLinux

  • Linux LinuxUnixUnix

  • Linux Linus TorvaldsMinixAndrew Tannebaum386486UnixLinux

  • GNUGNURichard Stallman1983927Richard Stallmannet.unix-wizardsGNUGNUGNU's Not Unix

  • GPLGPLGeneral Public LicenseGNUGNUGNU

  • LinuxLinuxAsianux ArchLinuxB2D Linux Conectiva Linux Debian GNU/Linux Fedora Core Gentoo Linux Knoppix Linux Linux From Scratch Magic Linux Mandriva Linux Red Hat Linux Slackware Linux Stanix Live CD SUSE Linux Turbo Linux Ubuntu LinuxCentOSIPCopNUtyxDEFTNETbsdturbolinux Linux Linux(Redflag Linux) Qomo LinuxLinux(Xteam Linux) Linux Linux Linux Linux veket, lucky8k-veket.Open Desktop Hiweed GNU/Linux Magic Linux Engineering Computing GNU/Linux kylinLinux Linux Linux(RaysLX) CD Linux MC Linux Linux(Thizlinux) b2d linux IBOX MCLOS FANXEverestlinuxLinuxHiweedDeepin LinuxHiweedDeepinubuntuDeepin LinuxHiweedHiweed

  • RedhatRed HatRed Hat LinuxLinuxRed Hat22Red HatRed HatRed Hat Red Hat300610Linux710LinuxRed HatLinuxRed HatLinuxCertificationRHCE(Red Hat)IT

  • Redhat199411,Redhat Linux 1.020025, RedHatEnterpriseEdition2.1AS 201012, RedHatEnterpriseEdition6.0AS20033,Redhat Linux 9.02004

  • FedoraFedora CoreFedora Linux Red Hat LinuxLinuxFedoraFedora 14,Fedoralinux6 FedoraRedhatLinuxRedhat 9.0Fedora Linux Fedora Redhat Fedora Core Red Hat Linux20039 (Red Hat) Red Hat Enterprise Linux Red Hat Linux Fedora Fedora ProjectFedora Project Red Hat Linux 9 Fedora

  • Fedora200311, Fedora Core 1 20076, Fedora 7 201011, Fedora 14200610, Fedora Core 6

  • CentOSCentOSCommunity ENTerprise Operating SystemLinuxRed Hat Enterprise LinuxCentOSRed Hat Enterprise LinuxCentOS CentOSRedhatRedhat

  • ubuntuUbuntuLinuxubuntuUbuntuDebianGNOMEDebian6UbuntuUbuntu

  • Ubuntu4.10 20041020 Warty Warthog 5.04 200548 Hoary Hedgehog 5.10 20051013 Breezy Badger 6.06 LTS 200661 Dapper Drake 6.10 20061026 Edgy Eft 7.04 2007419 Feisty Fawn 7.10 20071018 Gutsy Gibbon 8.04 LTS2008424 Hardy Heron 8.10 20081030 Intrepid Ibex 9.04 2009423 Jaunty Jackalope 9.10 20091029 Karmic Koala 10.04 LTS2010429 Lucid Lynx 10.10 20101010 Maverick Meerkat 11.04 20114 Natty Narwhal

  • DebianDebian GNU/LinuxIanMurdock1993IanDebraDebDebianGNU/Linux

  • openSUSEopenSUSE Novell Linux openSUSE.org Linux SUSE Linux openSUSE Linux Linux

  • LinuxLinuxLinuxHALinuxLinuxLinux

  • LinuxLinux Ext2 Ext2GNU/LinuxLinuxLinuxCPUExt2() Ext3 Ext3Ext2Ext2Ext3Journal File System),Linux Ext4 ext4ext3ext4ext364Linuxext3ext3ext4ext3ext3Theodore Ts'o2006628ext4

  • LinuxLinux swap: LinuxswapLinuxswap2Linux VFAT VFATWindowsLinuxWindowsLinuxLVMLogical Volume ManagerLinux LVM LVMLVM

  • Linux

    MS-DOSLinuxLinux copycpcp thisfile.txt /home/thisdirectorymovemvmv thisfile.txt /home/thisdirectorydirlslsclsclearclear shell exitexitexitdatedatedatedelrmrm thisfile.txtechoechoecho this messageeditgedit([a])gedit thisfile.txtfcdiffdiff file1 file2findgrepgrep thisfile.txtformat a:mke2fs mformat/sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 /?man[c]man mkdirmkdirmkdir moreless[d]less thisfile.txtrenmv[e]mv thisfile.txt thatfile.txtchdirpwdpwdabsolute pathcd cd cd /directory/directory

  • LinuxVIEMACSGEDITOpenOffice)FirefoxMozilla Thunderbird)ftpgftp(mplayerrhythmbox)QQgMSNlumaQQgaim)Eclipse)qemu-kvmvirtualboxvmware)

  • LinuxLinuxmakefileRpm(redhat,fedora,centos,opensuse)rpm ivh ***.rpmYum(redhat,fedora,centos,opensuse)yum search ***yum install ***Deb(debain,ubuntu)depk I ***.debApt-get(debain,ubuntu)apt-get search ***apt-get install ***

  • LinuxVIEclipseIDEJavaC++PythonEclipseEclipseIDEEclipseIDE

  • LinuxC++VI + gcc + gdbEclipse + cdt plusWindowsmagic c++

  • LinuxVNC Server)1VNC Server2vncserver359005901~/etc/sysconfig/iptables-A INPUT -m state --state NEW -m tcp -p tcp --dport 5900:5910 -j ACCEPT4/etc/sysconfig/vncservers VNCSERVERS=1:user1 2:user2 3:user3 ... 1user $ /sbin/chkconfig --level 2345 vncserver onredhat/.vnc/xstartup ## unset SESSION_MANAGER ## exec /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc # fedoravncservertiger-vncserverredhat

  • Linuxroot1grub*** single2Linux rescuechroot /mnt/sysimage

  • root

    1 Linuxe

  • 2 single1

  • 3 Linux

  • sh -2.05b# passwd root changing password for user root: BAD PASSWORD:it is too simplistic/systematic retype new password: passwd:all authentication tokens updated successfully.sh -2.05b# exit

    exitlinux

  • Linuxlinuxwindowsgrubgrub for DOS)Linux(homevarRedhatCentOS /etc/yum.repos.d/ CentOS-Base.repovmwarewindowslinux

  • Redhat[base]name=CentOS-$releasever - Basebaseurl=http://mirrors.kernel.org/centos/5.5/os/i386/gpgcheck=1gpgkey=http://mirrors.kernel.org/centos/5.5/os/i386/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5

    #released updates[update]name=CentOS-$releasever - Updatesbaseurl=http://mirrors.kernel.org/centos/5.5/updates/i386/gpgcheck=1gpgkey=http://mirrors.kernel.org/centos/5.5/os/i386/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5

    #packages used/produced in the build but not released[addons]name=CentOS-$releasever - Addonsbaseurl=http://mirrors.kernel.org/centos/5.5/addons/i386/gpgcheck=1gpgkey=http://mirrors.kernel.org/centos/5.5/os/i386/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5

    #additional packages that may be useful[extras]name=CentOS-$releasever - Extrasbaseurl=http://mirrors.kernel.org/centos/5.5/extras/i386/gpgcheck=1gpgkey=http://mirrors.kernel.org/centos/5.5/os/i386/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5