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ระบบต่อมไร้ท่อ (Endocrine System)

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ระบบต่อมไร้ท่อ (Endocrine System). อ. วัชรวิทย์ มีหนองใหญ่. วัตถุประสงค์. เพื่อให้นิสิตสามารถทราบเกี่ยวกับอวัยวะต่างๆที่ทำหน้าที่สร้างฮอร์โมน เพื่อให้นิสิตสามารถจำแนกประเภทของฮอร์โมนได้ เพื่อให้นิสิตสามารถอธิบายกลไกการทำงานของฮอร์โมนได้ เพื่อให้นิสิตสามารถอธิบายหน้าที่ของฮอร์โมนสัตว์ได้. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of ระบบต่อมไร้ท่อ (Endocrine System)

  • (Endocrine System).

  • (endocrine gland) (target organ)

    thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pituitary

  • hormone

  • (Hypophysis, Pituitary gland), (Thyroid gland), (Parathyroid gland), (Adrenal gland), (Pineal gland, Epiphysis) Islets of Langerhans, (Ovary) (Testes), (Placenta), (Kidney)

  • Hormones Neurotransmitters Local signalling molecules Pheromones (exocrine glands)

  • (hormone)

  • , ADH growth hormone Estrogen, Oxytocin Melatonin

  • () (synergistic effect) (antagonism effect)

  • 2 (Steroid hormone) (Non-Steroid hormone)

  • (Steroid hormone) mesoderm Cyclopentanohydrophenantrene ring estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, aldosterone, cortisol

  • (Non-Steroid hormone) 4 (protein hormone peptides hormone) (receptor) 2 (cAMP) phospholylation (target cell) (pituitary gland) (hypothalamus)

  • (glycoprotein hormone) FSH, LH, TSH (amino acid derivative) (epinephrine), (norepinephrine) (fatty acid derivative) prostaglandin

  • (smooth endoplasmic reticulum)

  • (RER) (golgi apparatus) secretory granules prohormone prehormone

  • catecholamine exocytosis secretory granules secretory granules catecholamine

  • (Neural) (Hormonal) (Humoral)

  • (feedback control)

    2 1. (Positive feedback control)2. (Negative feedback control)

  • Feedback Control

  • 2

  • transcription translation

  • (c-AMP)

  • Inactive proteinkinase AActive proteinkinase APhospholylation of cell

  • (glucoronide) (sulphate)

  • (stalk) releasing hormone hypothalamo-pituitary portal system pituitary stalk

  • - releasing hormone - 2 ADH oxytocin

  • 6 Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)Lutenizing hormone (LH) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Growth hormone (GH) Somatotrophin (STH) Prolactin

    (anterior pituitary)

  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (ovaries) (testes) FSH (ovarian follicle) FSH seminiferous tubule

  • Lutenizing hormone (LH) LH graafian follicles LH (corpus luteum) LH leydig cell testosterone

  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (adrenal cortex) aldosterone cortisol

  • Growth hormone (GH) Somatotrophin (STH) GH Growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH) Somatostatin delta cell

  • Prolactin GH (dopamine)

  • (posterior pituitary) Oxytocin Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) vasopressin

  • Oxytocin - -

  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) vasopressin ADH (dehydration)

  • (thyroid gland) (thyroxin) tetraiodothyronine (T4 ) triiodothyronine (T3) Calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin)

  • (thyroxin) oxidation Krebs cycle mitochondria GH metamorphosis

  • metamorphosis

  • Calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin) parafollicular cell (C-cell) () calcitonin (PO4-)

  • (parathyroid gland) Ca2+ negative feedback Ca2+ PTH

  • (pancrease) islets of langerhans - alpha cells (glucagon)- beta cells (Insulin)- delta cells (somatostatin)

  • Insulin (- cell) Islet of Langerhans (adipose tissue)

  • Glucagon (-cell) -cell (gluconeogenesis)

  • Somatostatin growth inhibiting hormone GH delta cells hyperglycemia (diabetes meletis)

  • (adrenal glands) 2 (adrenal cortex) (adrenal medulla)

  • (adrenal cortex) mesoderm ACTH 3 zona glomerulosa mineralocorticoid (aldosterone) Na+ aldosterone Na+

  • zona fasciculata (cortisol) zona reticularis (Testosterone) (Estrogen)

  • (adrenal medulla) (sympathetic) cathecholamine Epinephrine (adrenaline) ~ 80 % Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

  • (Adrenalin hormone) (Epinephrine hormone)

  • (Noradrenalin hormone) (Norepinephrin hormone)

  • (pineal gland) cerebrum neuroendocrine gland parasympathetic sympathetic Melatonin

  • Pineal gland

  • Melatonin melanocyte stimulating hormone gonadotropin melatonin (clock of life)

  • (Gonad) 2 (Testes) (ovary)

  • (Testes) interstitial cell (seminiferous tubule) LH (androgen) (Testosterone) Testosterone sperm

  • (Testes)

  • (Ovary)

  • Estrogens follicles graafian follicles granulose cells theca cells estrogens -estradiol, estriol estrone -estradiol estrogens estrogens (heat)

  • Progesterone (corpus luteum) (endometrium) corpus luteum PGF2

  • Relaxin

    PGF2 granular cell follicle corpus luteum (luteolysis)

  • (Uterus) prostaglandins accessory gland prostate gland corpus luteum (luteolysis)

  • (placental hormone)Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)

  • Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) placental gonadotropin 40-85 follicles FSH 1 1

  • Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) syncytiotro blastic cells primate 8 LH

  • (Thymus gland) 2 () (Thymosin) (T-lymphocyte) (T-cell)

  • (Gastrin) (Secretin) (Cholecystokinin;CCK) (pancreozymin) (Enterogastron)

  • (Gastrin) parietal cell chief cell pepsinogen

  • (Secretin) CCK

  • (Cholecystokinin;CCK)

  • (Enterogastron)

  • THANK YOU

    granule = water potential

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