Banh Mi Ngot

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TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP TP.HCMVIN CNG NGH SINH HC V THC PHMB MN: CNG NGH BO QUN & CH BIN NNG SN

ti:

BNH M NGT

GVHD: C Nguyn Th Mai Hng M hc phn: 210503301

Nhm: 1. Lng Ngc Thy An 2. Nguyn Th Hoi An 3. Nguyn Ngc Tho

Tp.HCM, thng 3 nm 2011|Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

DANH SCH SINH VINLng Ngc Thy An Nguyn Th Hoi An Nguyn Ngc Tho 08109961 08144111 08223351

|Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

|Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

LI M UHin nay bnh m ni chung c s dng ph bin, gp phn a dng ha ba n cho mi ngi. Ngi Vit thng hay gi chung cc loi bnh vi nguyn liu chnh l bt m v nng trong l nng vi nhng danh t chung nh bnh ngt, bnh u. Cc loi bnh ngt ngy nay c ngun gc t phng Ty, c th l c vng chu u sau sang M, ch ko phi nh nhiu ngi lm tng Php l ci ni bt ngun cc sn phm bnh m, bnh ngt. Bi tiu lun ny s tm hiu s lc v cc loi bnh ph bin trn th trng ni chung cng nh l v quy trnh sn xut, v cc ch tiu cm quan i vi loi bnh m ngt ni ring

1 Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

1. Tng quan v cc loi bnh Tt c cc sn phm lin quan n vic s dng bt, trng, cht bo v nng ln c gi chung l PASTRY. V th, ngi u bp chuyn ph trch vic lm ra nhng sn phm ny c gi l Pastry Chef. T "cake" m ngi Vit hay gi l "bnh ngt" ch l 1 mng rt hp trong Pastry m thi.1.1.

Bread Bnh m

Phn loi: Bnh m thng: (lean yeast bread) Bnh m "ngt": (rich yeast bread) Cc kiu bnh m c tn gi ring nh: Baguette, Bnh m gi (Sandwich), Rolls (Bnh m trn), kiu bnh Humberger (Ly lng trng v to mu v rc vng trn v bnh) Cc loi bnh nhiu lp (Puff pastry) v Croissant (bnh sng b) cng c cch thc v nguyn liu ging nh bnh m ngt.

Puff pastry1.2.

Croissant

Quick bread Bnh m nhanh

y l tn gi chung cho cc loi bnh-dng-bnh-m nhng khng qua cng on v ln men t nhin (khong vi ting) m dng cc cht ha hc gy tc dng n nhanh, v th lm rt nhanh. Quick bread cng thng c kt cu mm hn v "rich" hn, khng c c dai nh vi bnh m n bng men t nhin. Quick breads bao gm cc loi bnh vi tn gi nh: muffins, scones, loaf bread, coffee cakes.2 Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

Muffins: c dng ging chic bnh nh hnh cc, c th c trong cc giy hoc khng cn. Muffins ngt hoc mn u c. Scone: dng hnh nn, hnh tam gic bt. Loaf: hnh khi ch nht Coffee cake: lm vi khun trn, vung, ch nht...

Muffin

Scone

1.3. Bnh khng dng l nngy l nhng loi bnh dng phng php rn bng cht bo. Cc loi ph bin: Doughnuts (donut): bnh ngt c hnh bnh xe trn, lm chn bng cch rn ngp du. Pancake: bnh rn cho lm chn bng cch qut lp du/b mng ln mt cho, bnh dt, mng. Crepe: gn ging nh pancake nhng c trng mng hn rt nhiu. Waffles: bnh c dng mng, dt v thng lm vo khun ring.

3 Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

Mt loi Waffle

Khun lm Waffle

Fritters: bnh c v ngt v mn ty nguyn liu s dng, khng c hnh dng c nh, lm chn bng rn ngp du.1.4.

Pie v tart

Hai loi bnh ny d b nhm ln vi nhau. C c tart v pie ngt hoc mn. Pie: bnh v kn c cha nhn bn trong, tt c gi chung l v pie. Bt cho v pie c chia lm 2 phn, 1 phn cn mng lm , xp nhn bn trong, ri phn cn li cn mng ph ln trn, gn kn cc mp v xin thng vi ch trn v b mt hi thot ra trong qu trnh nng. Tart: bnh ko c v, nng h phn nhn. Tart l 1 dng c bit ca pie m ko cn 1 lp v bc kn nhn.

1.5. CakeTn gi chung cho cc loi bnh ngt c hm lng cht bo v ngt cao nht trong cc sn phm bnh nng l. Lm bnh dng cake i hi nhiu s chnh xc v cn ong nguyn liu. Cu trc bnh thng l mm, xp, nhiu hng v v bnh cake c nng v trnh by di nhiu hnh dng khc nhau. Cupcake: l mt trong nhiu cch trnh by ca cake, bnh dng nh, ng trong nhng chic cup giy xinh xn.

4 Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

Chiffon, angel food, devil food: l dng bnh bng xp mm c to thnh nh vic nh bng lng trng v lng ring bit. Bnh c nng trong khun dng ng (tube). Chiffon: dng du n lm thnh phn cht bo trong bnh. C lng trng v u c s dng nhng tch ring trong qu trnh lm. Angel food: ch dng lng trng nh bng, khng c cht bo. Bnh nh v trng nh bng. Devil food: bnh c mu en chocolate, dng b lm cht bo. L mt dng bnh dng b (butter cake)

Devil food Chiffon Angel food

Pound cake: Bnh c hm lng cht bo v ng u cao, tn gi ch cc nguyn liu chnh u c khi lng 1 pound Anh, khong 454g. Bnh ny thng c kt cu nng v c hn bnh dng bng xp. Bnh lm trong khun loaf hoc khun bundt. Cheesecake: thnh phn ch yu ca bnh l cream cheese. Bt c s dng rt t hoc khng s dng.1.6.

Cookies

Ngi vit mnh hay gi cc loi Cookies l bnh quy (Biscuit - bch quy, ting Php). T hay Cookie c ngha l "bnh nh small cake". C loi cookie c lm t5 Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

hn hp bt kh ging nh vi cake, nhng trong phn ln trng hp, cookie c hm lng nc thp. Cookie rt a dng, c loi mm, m, kh, gin, dai, xp, cng.

2.Phn bit bnh m ngt v bnh m thngBnh m thng (lean yeast bread): thnh phn ch c bt v nc, c th c dng men hoc khng dng men, v th c loi bnh m cn qua qu trnh n ln men v c loi khng qua qu trnh ny. Bnh m "ngt" (rich yeast bread): t "ngt" c dch kh phin din, y l nhng loi bnh m ngoi bt, nc, men, c s dng thm cc thnh phn khc nh ng, cht bo, sa, bt sa, v th bnh m c thm nhiu mi v thm ngon v kt cu khc vi bnh m thng.

3.Tng quan v nguyn liu chnhBt m l sn phm c ch bin t ht la m bng qu trnh nghin. Trong qu trnh ny v cm v phi c tch ra v phn cn li ca ht la m (ni nh) c nghin nh ti mn thch hp (ra thnh phm l bt m).

3.1. Phn loi bt m Bt m hin nay c lm t nhiu loi bt c nghin trn t nhiu loi la khc nhau. Ngi ta gi tn nh bt m loi trng, hay nu, en.. ty vo mu sc ca bt v gi l bt cng hay mm ty vo lng v tnh cht gluten ca bt. Bt m lm bnh m (Bread), gluten cao hn v khe hn, lm cho bnh n khe, gi c hnh dng ca bnh sau khi nng. Bt m lm bnh kem xp (cake6 Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

hay gateaux) c gluten t hn. Bt lm bnh ngt (pastry) c gluten cao hn bnh kem xp cht t, v thp hn bt lm bnh m. Cc loi bt m ch yu sau (phn theo cng dng): Bt bnh m, hay bt m thng thng. Bt bnh ngt (pastry). Bt bnh gato hay bnh kem (cake, gateaux). Bt m gia dng (all-purpose): C lng gluten cao, thch hp lm hu ht cc loi bnh, trong gia nh. Bt m lm bnh bao: Loi bt trng, c xay t phn li ca ht la m. Bt m Durum: Lm cc loi m Spagetti... c lm t loi la m rt cng (Durum), c gluten cao nht. Loi bt m ny c sn xut t nh my bt m chuyn dng3.2.

Thnh phn ha hc ca bt m

Nhng c im thnh phn bt m v mt s

lng v cht lng nh theo gi tr dinh dng v tnh cht nng bnh ca bt. Cc cht dinh dng trong bt c hng cao th c c th tiu ha d hn, nhng bt m hng thp li c vitamin v cht khong cao hn. Bt m ch yu gm gluxit v protit, c th v

thnh phn c trnh by bng di y:

Loi v hng bt m

Thnh phn ha hc trung bnh tnh bng % cht kh Tinh Pantozan bt Protit Cht bo ng chung Xenluloza Tro

7 Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

Bt m ho hng Hng I Hng II 0,3 2,5 3,5 77,5 71 14 14,5 1,5 1,9 2,0 2,8 0,8 2.3 0,7 1,2 1.95 79 12 0,8 1,8 0,1 0,5

Bng I.1. Thnh phn ha hc ca bt m

Hm lng cc gluxit v protit chim khong 90% trng lng bt m. Hm lng protit c trong cc hng bt m khc nhau th khng ging nhau.

Hm lng protit tng dn t bt hng cao n bt hng thp, nhng v mt dinh dng th protit trong bt hng cao gi tr hn protit trong bt hng thp Protit trong bt m gm 4 loi: Anbumin, Globulin, Protalamin, Glutenlin. Trong 4 loi ni trn th hm lng Anbumin v Globulin chim khong

20%, cn 80% l Protalamin v Glutenlin, v t l protalamin v glutenlin trong bt m l tng ng nhau. Khi bt m c cht lng bnh thng th t l Gluten t ph thuc vo hm lng protide ca bt.

Hm lng v cht lng Gluten bt m ph thuc vo ging la m, iu kin V cht lng ca Gluten c nh hng ln n qu trnh ch bin v cht lng

trng trt, ch sy ht, ch gia cng nc nhit, ch bo qun sn phm nh vy nn trong sn xut bnh quy thng s dng bt c cht lng yu v trung bnh.

Trong qu trnh ch bin c th vn dng cc yu t ca nhit , nng

mui n, cng nho ci thin nhng tnh cht vt l ca Gluten. Gim nhit nho th Gluten tr nn cht hn, tng nhit nho th Gluten n nhanh nhng kh nng gi kh km v bnh t n hn.

Mui n c tc dng lm cho Gluten cht li v tng kh nng ht nc ln, Cng nho lm tng qu trnh to hnh Gluten nhng lm gim kh nng8 Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

cng thy phn protit gim i r rt.

gi kh ca Gluten.

Axit ascorbic, kali bromat, peroxyt v mt s cht oxi ha khc c tc dng S lng Gluten khng nh hng ln n cht lng bnh quy, song

lm cho Gluten cht hn cn cc cht kh th c tc dng ngc li.

hm lng Gluten tng th m ca bt nho tng, do thi gian nng b V vy, ta cn hn ch s lng Gluten trong khong 27-30%. Gluxit ca bt m: gluxit trong bt m gm c: tinh bt dextrin, xenluloza,

ko di.

hemieluloza, gluxit keo, cc loi ng. Qu trnh to thnh gluxit c biu din bi phng trnh tng qut sau: 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + O2

Tinh bt: l gluxit quan trng nht ca tinh bt. Trong hng bt cao cha n

80% tinh bt. Tinh bt ca cc loi bt khc nhau th khng ging nhau v hnh dng, kch thc, kh nng trng n v h ha.

Dextrin: l nhng cht keo to thnh vi nc mt dung dch dnh. Trong

bt m sn xut t bt m ny mm c cha t 3-5% l dextrin. Dextrin t lien kt vi nc, do khi bt nho c hm lng cao cc dextrin lm bnh km dai.

Xenluloza: xenluloza lm gim gi tr dinh dng ca bt. Trong bt hng cao Hemixenluloza: Hm lng hemixenluloza ph thuc vo hng bt, thng ng trong bt: cha mt lng khng ln lm. Trong bt c cha khong

c khong 0,1 0,15 % xenluloza. khong 2 8%, c th ngi khng tiu ha c hemixenluloza. 0,1 0,5 maltoza. Hm lng sacaroza trong bt m khong 0,2 0,6%. Hm lng chung cc loi ng ph thuc vo loi bt v cht lng ca ht. Cht bo: Trong bt cc lipit trng thi t do v trng thi kt hp vi protit,

gluxit. Nhng hp cht ny c nh hng n tnh cht cc gluten, chng lm cho cc gluten n hi hn. Hm lng chung ca cht bo trong bt m vo khong 0,1 2% ty theo hng bt m.9 Tm hiu v bnh m ngt

Vitamin: trong bt m c cha rt nhiu vitamin nh B1, B6, PP Hng bt Men trong bt: l nhng protit c tnh cht xc tc. Trong bt c cha rt nhiu

cng cao th vitamin cng thp v ngc li. men lm nh hng n cht lng bt, cc loi men quan trng nh: men thy phn tinh bt v protit nh: proteinaza, polipeptidaza, anpha- amilaza, beta-amylaza v cn c cc men khc nh: lipaza, lipoxydaza