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  • 1. I/ GII THIU CHUNG V QUN TR CHUI CUNG NG LCH S PHT TRIN CA QUN TR CHUI CUNG NG Vo nhng nm u ca th k 20 th vic thit k v pht trin sn phm mi din ra chm chp v l thuc ch yu vo ngun lc ni b, cng ngh v cng sut. Chia s cng ngh v chuyn mn thng qua s cng tc chin lc gia ngi mua v ngi bn l mt thut ng him khi nghe giai on by gi. Cc quy trnh sn xut c m bi tn kho nhm lm cho my mc vn hnh thng sut v quy tr cn i dng nguyn vt liu, iu ny dn n tn kho trong sn xut tng cao. Cho n thp nin 60 ca th k 20, cc cng ty ln trn th gii tch cc p dng cng ngh sn xut hng lot ct gim chi ph v ci tin nng sut, song h li t ch n vic to ra mi quan h vi nh cung cp, ci thin vic thit k quy trnh v tnh linh hot, hoc ci thin cht lng sn phm. Trong thp nin 70, h thng hoch nh nhu cu nguyn vt liu (MRP) v h thng hoch nh ngun lc sn xut (MRPII) c pht trin v tm quan trng ca qun tr hiu qu vt liu ngy cng c nhn mnh, cc nh sn xut nhn thc tc ng ca mc tn kho cao n chi ph sn xut v chi ph lu gi tn kho. Cng vi s pht trin ca cng ngh thng tin, c bit l my tnh lm gia tng tnh tinh vi ca cc phn mm kim sot tn kho lm gim ng k chi ph tn kho trong khi vn ci thin truyn thng ni b v nhu cu ca cc chi tit cn mua cng nh ngun cung. Thp nin 1980 c xem nh l thi k bn l ca qun tr chui cung ng. Thut ng qun tr chui cung ng ln u tin s dng mt cch rng ri trn nhiu t bo, tp ch, c th l vo nm 1982.1 Cnh tranh trn th trng ton cu ngy cng tr nn khc lit gy p lc n cc nh sn xut, buc h phi ct gim chi ph, nng cao cht lng sn phm, cng vi vic gia tng mc phc v khch hng. Cc hng sn xut vn dng k thut sn xut ng thi hn (JIT), qun tr cht lng ton din (TQM) nhm ci tin cht lng, nng cao hiu qu sn xut, rt ngn thi gian giao hng. Trong mi trng sn xut JIT vi vic s dng t tn kho m cho lch trnh sn xut, cc doanh nghip bt u nhn thy li ch tim tng v tm quan trng ca mi quan h
  • 2. chin lc v hp tc ca nh cung cp- ngi mua- khch hng. Khi nim v s cng tc hoc lin minh cng ni bt khi cc doanh nghip thc hin JIT v TQM. T thp nin 1990, cnh tranh khc lit, cng vi vic gia tng chi ph hu cn v tn kho, cng nh khuynh hng ton cu ha nn kinh t to ra thch thc phi ci thin cht lng, hiu qu sn xut, dch v khch hng, thit k v pht trin sn phm mi lin tc. gii quyt nhng thch thc ny, cc nh sn xut bt u mua sn phm t cc nh cung cp cht lng cao, c danh ting v c chng thc. Hn na cc doanh nghip sn xut ku gi cc nh cung cp tham gia vo vic thit k v pht trin sn phm mi cng nh ng gp kin vo vic ci thin dch v, cht lng v gim chi ph chung. Mt khc, cc cng ty nhn thy rng nu h cam kt mua hng t nhng nh cung cp tt nht cho hat ng kinh doanh ca mnh th i li h s hng li t vic gia tng doanh s thng qua s ci tin cht lng, phn phi v thit k sn phm cng nh ct gim chi ph nh vo vic quan tm nhiu n tin trnh, nguyn vt liu v cc linh kin c s dng trong hot ng sn xut. Nhiu lin minh gia nh cung cp v ngi mua chng t s thnh cng ca mnh. NH NGHA CHUI CUNG NG Ngy nay, cnh tranh thnh cng trong bt k mi trng kinh doanh no, cc doanh nghip khng ch tp trung vo hot ng ca ring mnh m phi tham gia vo cng vic kinh doanh ca nh cung cp cng nh khch hng ca n. Bi l, khi doanh nghip mun p ng sn phm hoc dch v cho khch hng h buc phi quan tm su sc hn n dng dch chuyn nguyn vt liu; cch thc thit k, ng gi sn phm v dch v ca nh cung cp; cch thc vn chuyn, bo qun sn phm hon thnh v nhng mong i thc s ca ngi tiu dung hoc khch hng cui cng v thc t l c nhiu doanh nghip c th khng bit sn phm ca h c s dng nh th no trng vic to ra sn phm cui cng cho khch hng. Cnh tranh c tnh ton cu ngy cng khc lit, chu k sng ca sn phm mi ngy cng ngn hn, mc k vng ca khch hng ngy cng cao hn thc p cc doanh nghip phi u t v tp trung nhiu vo chui cung ng ca n. Thm vo , nhng tin b lin tc v i mi trong cng ngh truyn thng v vn ti (v d, truyn thng di ng, Internet v phn phi hng qua
  • 3. m), thc y s pht trin khng ngng ca chui cung ng v nhng k thut qun l n. Trong mt chui cung ng in hnh, doanh nghip mua nguyn vt liu t mt hoc nhiu nh cung cp; cc b phn, chi tit hoc thm ch sn phm sau c sn xut mt hay mt s nh my, v c vn chuyn n nh kho lu tr giai on trung gian, cui cng n nh bn l v khch hng. V vy, gim thiu chi ph v ci thin mc phc v, cc chin lc chui cung ng hiu qu phi xem xt n s tng tc cc cp khc nhau trong chui cung ng. Chui cung ng, cng c xem nh mng li hu cn, bao gm cc nh cung cp, cc trung tm sn xut, nh kho, cc trung tm phn phi, v cc ca hng bn l, cng nh nguyn vt liu, tn kho trong qu trnh sn xut v sn phm hon thnh dch chuyn gia cc c s Chui cung ng l g? C rt nhiu nh ngha v qun tr chui cung ng, nhng chng ta bt u s tho lun vi khi nim Chui cung ng bao gm tt c cc doanh nghip tham gia, mt cch trc tip hay gin tip, trong vic p ng nhu cu khch hng, th hin s dch chuyn nguyn vt liu xuyn sut qu trnh t nh cung cp ban u n khch hng cui cng. Chui cung ng khng ch bao gm nh sn xut v nh cung cp, m cn cng ty vn ti, nh kho, nh bn l v khch hng ca n. V d mt chui cung ng bt u vi cc doanh nghip khai thc nguyn liu t t - chng hn nh qung st, du m, g v lng thc v bn chng cho cc doanh nghip sn xut vt liu. Cc doanh nghip ny, ng vai tr nh ngi t hng v sau khi nhn cc yu cu v chi tit k thut t cc nh sn xut linh kin, h s tip tc ch bin vt liu ny thnh cc vt liu thch hp (nh tm thp, nhm, ng , g x v thc phm kim tra). n lt mnh, cc nh sn xut linh kin phi p ng n hng v yu cu t khch hng ca h - nh sn xut sn phm cui cng. u ra ca qu trnh ny l cc linh kin hay cc chi tit trung gian (nh dy in, vi, mch in, nhng chi tit cn thit...). Nh sn xut sn phm cui cng (cc cng ty nh IBM, General Motors, Coca-Cola) lp rp sn phm hon thnh, bn chng cho ngi bn s hoc nh phn phi, ri nhng thnh vin ny s bn chng li cho nh bn l, nhng ngi thc hin s mnh a sn phm n ngi tiu dng cui
  • 4. cng. Chng ta mua sn phm trn c s gi, cht lng, tnh sn sng, s bo tr v danh ting vi hy vng rng chng tha mn yu cu m chng ta mong i. i khi v nhng l do no chng ta cn tr sn phm hoc cc chi tit do khng p ng yu cu hoc i khi cn sa cha hoc ti ch chng, mt qui trnh ngc cng rt cn thit. Cc hot ng hu cn ngc ny cng bao gm trong chui cung ng. Bn trong mi t chc, chng hn nh sn xut, chui cung ng bao gm tt c cc chc nng lin quan n vic nhn v p ng nhu cu khch hng. Nhng chc nng ny bao hm v khng b hn ch trong vic pht trin sn phm mi, marketing, sn xut, phn phi, ti chnh v dch v khch hng. Chui cung ng in hnh Chui cung ng in hnh nh trong hnh 1-1, chng ta c th hnh dung cc doanh nghip nm khu vc gia nh doanh nghip trung tm. Thc t, doanh nghip trung tm khng ch l doanh nghip lp rp sn phm cui cng, n cng c th l bt c doanh nghip no tham gia trong chui cung ng, ty thuc vo phm vi tham chiu v mc tiu ca nh qun tr khi xem xt m hnh.
  • 5. Cc sn phm s n tay ngi tiu dng theo mt s hnh thc ca chui cung ng. Chui cung ng n gin s ch c t thc th tham gia, trong khi vi cc chui phc tp s cc thc th tham gia s rt ln. Nh th, bn s d dng nhn thy rng ch c mt ngun to ra li nhun duy nht cho ton chui l khch hng cui cng. Khi cc doanh nghip ring l trong chui cung ng ra cc quyt nh kinh doanh m khng quan tm n cc thnh vin khc trong chui, rt cuc dn n gi bn cho khch hng cui cng s rt cao, mc phc v ca chui cung ng thp v nhu cu khch hng tiu dng cui cng c th s gim xung. Cng vi cc thc th chnh, c rt nhiu doanh nghip khc lin quan mt cch gin tip n hu ht cc chui cung ng, v h ng vai tr quan trng trong vic phn phi sn phm cui cng cho khch hng. l cc nh cung cp dch v, chng hn nh cc cng ty vn ti ng khng v ng b, cc nh cung cp h thng thng tin, cc cng ty kinh doanh kho bi, cc hng mi gii vn ti, cc i l v cc nh t vn. Trong a s chui cung ng, cc doanh nghip cung cp dch v ny c bit hu ch i vi cc doanh nghip trung tm, v nh th h c th mua sn phm ni h cn, hoc cho php ngi mua v ngi bn giao tip mt cch hiu qu, cho php doanh nghip phc v cc th trng xa xi, gip cc doanh nghip tit kim chi ph vn ti ni a v quc t, v ni chung cho php doanh nghip phc v tt khch hang vi chi ph thp nht c th. Chng ta hy th khm ph chui cung ng, bng cch khi xem xt mt khch hng i vo h thng siu th Coop Mart mua bt git. Chui cung ng bt u vi khch hng v nhu cu v bt git. Giai on k tip ca chui cung ng ny l siu th Coop Mart , ni m khch hang gh n. phc v nhu cu ca khch hng, Coop Mart lu tr tn kho cc sn phm hoc c cung cp t mt nh phn phi. Nh phn phi nhn hng t cc cng ty sn xut, chng hn nh P&G. Nh my sn xut ca P&G nhn nguyn vt liu t rt nhiu nh cung cp khc nhau m chnh nhng nh cung cp ny li nhn hng t cc nh cung cp khc na. V d, nguyn liu ng gi bao b n t cng ty bao b Thanh Tm trong khi chnh cng ty ny nhn nguyn vt liu sn xut bao b cho t cc nh cung cp khc. Chui cung cp ny c minh ha hnh 1-2.
  • 6. Chui cung ng lun hm cha tnh nng ng v n lin quan n dng thng tin nht nh v sn phm v ti chnh gia cc giai on khc nhau. Trong v d ca trn, Coop Mart cung cp sn phm, cng nh gi c v s sn sng v thng tin, cho khch hng. Khch hng s tr tin cho Coop Mart. Coop Mart s truyn ti d liu bn hng cng nh n t hng n nh kho hoc nh phn phi, v h s chuyn hng n ca hng. i li Coop Mart s chuyn tin cho nh phn phi sau khi nhn c hng. Nh phn phi cng cung cp thng tin v gi c v gi lch trnh giao hng cho Coop Mart. Dng thng tin, nguyn vt liu v ti chnh s lun chuyn trong ton chui cung ng. Trong mt v d khc, khi khch hng mua trc tuyn my tnh Dell, bn cnh cc thnh vin khc, chui cung cp bao gm khch hng. Trang web ca cng ty Dell s nhn n t hng ca khch hng, nh my lp rp ca Dell, v tt c nh cung cp ca Dell. Trang web cung cp cho khch hng thng tin v sn phm, chng loi sn phm v tnh sn sng ca sn phm. K