CÂU HỎI ÔN TẬP QT MARKETING

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CU HI N TP MARKETING 1. Th no l qun tr Marketing ? Cc trit l ca qun tr Marketing ? Qun tr marketing l qu trnh lp k hoch, v thc hin k hoch , nh gi, khuyn mi v phn phi hng ha, dch v v tng to ra s trao i vi cc nhm mc tiu, tha mn nhng mc tiu khch hng v t chc. nh ngha ny tha nhn qun tr marketing l mt qu trnh bao gm vic phn tch, lp k hoch, thc hin v kim sot. N lin quan n hng ha, dch v v tng, v da trn nim v trao i, mc ch ca n l to ra s tha mn cho cc bn hu quan. C nm quan im nh hng pht trin marketing m cc t chc thng vn dng trong hot ng marketing ca mnh Quan im sn xut: Quan im sn xut l mt trong nhng quan im ch o ngi bn lu i nht. Quan im sn xut khng nh rng ngi tiu dng s a thch nhng sn phm c bn rng ri v gi h. Nhng ngi lnh o cc t chc theo quan im sn xut phi tp trung vo vic nng cao hiu qu sn xut v m rng phm vi phn phi. Gi thit ngi tiu dng ch yu quan tm n mc sn c ca sn phm v gi h t nht cng l ng trong hai tnh hung. Th nht l khi nhu cu c kh nng thanh ton v sn phm vt qu lng cung ng, nh thng thy nhiu nc thuc th gii th ba. ngi tiu dng quan tm nhiu hn n vic kim c sn phm, ch t ch n chi tit ca n. Nhng ngi cung ng s tp trung vo vic tm cch tng sn lng. Th hai l gi thnh sn phm cao cn phi gim xung bng cch nng cao nng sut m rng th trng. Hin nay Cng ty Texas Instruments l mt v d v quan im sn xut. Quan im sn phm Quan im sn phm khng nh rng ngi tiu dng s a thch nhng sn phm c cht lng cao nht, cng dng nhiu hay c nhng tnh nng mi. Nhng ngi lnh o cc t chc theo quan im sn phm thng tp trung sc lc vo vic lm ra nhng sn phm thng hng v thng xuyn ci tin chng. Nhng ngi qun l ny cho rng ngi mua ngng m nhng sn phm p v c th nh gi c cht lng v cng dng ca sn phm. H qu say m vi sn phm ca mnh v khng lng c rng th trng c th kh chp nhn. Ban lnh o marketing tr thnh nn nhn ca o tng v chic by chut tt hn, v tin rng chic by chut tt hn s khin mi ngi x v nh h. Nhng cng ty theo quan im sn phm thng l khng hay t tnh n nhng kin ca khch hng khi thit k sn phm ca mnh. H tin tng rng cc k s ca h bit phi thit k v ci tin sn phm nh th no. Rt hay gp tnh trng l h thm ch khng nghin cu nhng sn phm ca cc i th cnh tranh v chng khng c sng ch ra y. Quan im sn phm dn n cn bnh thin cn trong marketing ch ch trng n sn phm m khng tnh n nhu cu ca khch hng Quan im bn hng Quan im bn hng (hay quan im tiu th) l mt quan im chung khc c nhiu cng ty vn dng vo th trng. Quan im bn hng khng nh rng nu c yn, th ngi tiu dng thng s khng mua cc sn phm ca cng tu vi s lng kh ln. V vy t chc cn phi c nhiu n lc tiu th v khuyn mi .

Quan im ny cho rng ngi tiu dng thng t ra c sc hay thi ngn ngi trong vic mua hng v cn c thuyt phc nh nhng th mi mua hng, nn cng ty cn c y cc cng c bn hng v khuyn mi kch thch mua hng nhiu hn. Quan im bn hng c vn dng c bit thch hp vi nhng th hng c nhu cu th ng tc l nhng th hng m ngi mua thng khng ngh n chuyn mua sm n, nh bo him, t in bch khoa ton th. Nhng ngnh ny thng hay p dng nhng bin php bn hng khc nhau pht hin nhng khch hng tim n ri bt u ni p bn hng cho h bng cch thuyt phc v nhng li ch ca sn phm. Quan im nh hng marketing Quan im marketing l mt trit l kinh doanh ang thch thc nhng quan im trc y. Nhng nguyn l trung tm ca n c hnh thnh vo gia nhng nm 1950. Quan im marketing khng nh rng, cha kho t c nhng nc tiu ca t chc l xc nh c nhng nhu cu cng mong mun ca cc th trng mc tiu v m bo mc tho mn mong mun bng nhng phng thc hu hiu v hiu qu so vi cc i th cnh tranh. Quan im bn hng tp trung vo nhng nhu cu ca ngi bn; Quan im marketing th ch trng n nhng nhu cu ca ngi mua. Quan im bn hng tm n nhu cu ca ngi bn l lm th no bin sn phm ca mnh thnh tin mt, cn quan im marketing th quan tm n tng tho mn nhu cu ca khch hng bng chnh sn phm v tt c nhng g lin quan n vic to ra, cng ng v cui cng l tiu dung sn phm . Quan im marketing da trn bn tr ct chnh l th trng mc tiu, nhu cu ca khch hng, marketing phi hp v kh nng sinh li. Quan im bn hng nhn trin vng t trong ra ngoi. N xut pht t nh my, tp trung vo nhng sn phm hin c ca cng ty v i hi phi c nhng bin php tiu th cng thng v khuyn mi m bo bn hng c li. Quan im marketing th nhn trin vng t ngoi vo trong. N xut pht t th trng c xc nh r rang, tp trung vo nhng nhu cu ca khch hng, phi hp tt c nhng hot ng no c tc ng n khch hng v to ra li nhun thng qua vic to ra s tho mn cho khch hng. Quan im marketing o c-x hi Quan im ny khng nh rng, doanh nghip khng nhng phi tho mn nhu cu v i hi ca khch hng m cn phi gi nguyn hay cng c mc sung tc cho ngi tiu dng v cho ton x hi. Quan im ny i hi mt sn phm phi tho mn c 3 yu t: 1. Li ch ca Cty 2. Li ch ca khch hng 3. Li ch ca x hi 2. Cc mc tiu ca h thng qun tr Marketing ? a. Ti a ha mc tiu dng (Maximize Consumption) Vic xc lp mc tiu ny ca marketing da trn mt gi nh l khi con ngi cng mua sm v tiu dng nhiu hn th h cng cm thy hnh phc hn.Nhng ngi lm marketing cho rng marketing to iu kin d dng v kch thch tiu dng ti a, nh s thc y sn xut, to ra nhiu cng n vic lm v em li s thnh vng ti a. Theo quan im ny th cng nhiu cng tt (more is better ). Tuy nhin nhiu ngi t ra nghi ng lun im tiu dng cng tng c ngha l con ngi cng hnh phc hn. b. Ti a ha s tha mn ca ngi tiu dng (Maximize Consumer Satisfaction)

Theo quan im marketing, doanh nghip ch c th thnh t cc mc tiu kinh doanh ca mnh da trn nhng n lc nhm gia tng s tha mn ca khch hng. Nhng trn thc t,vic gia tng s tha mn ca khc hng lun gp phi nhng tr ngi kh vt qua do b chi phi bi nhiu yu t tc ng tri chiu nhau. Vi ngun lc gii hn, mi doanh nghip trong qu trnh kinh doanh phi c gng s dng hp l p ng yu cu ca cc nhm li ch khc nhau v vic gia tng s tha mn ca nhm ngi ny c th lm phng hi n li ch ca nhm ngi khc. Ngoi ra, vic gia tng li ch ca ngi tiu dng i hi doanh nghip phi b thm chi ph trn c s nng cao hiu qu s dng cc ngun lc, iu m khng phi bao gi cng c th thc hin c. c. Ti a ha s la chn ca ngi tiu dng (Maximize Choice) Mc tiu ny c a ra nhm gia tng s a dng ca sn phm v kh nng la chn ca ngi mua vi hm rng ngi tiu dng c nhiu kh nng hn la chn, do h c th tm mua ng loi hng no tha mn c c mun ca h, lm cho h cm thy hi lng nht. Tuy nhin, y vn c vn l gi thnh ca mn hng c th tng ln, phi mt nhiu thi gian hn kho st, nh gi cc loi sn phm cnh tranh trc khi i n mt quyt nh mua. V c nht thit s loi sn phm nhiu hn s lm tng kh nng la chn thc t khng? Mt s ngi cho rng hin nay trn th trng, mi loi hng ha c qu nhiu nhn hiu, song gia chng li c qu t s khc bit. Thm vo khi ngi ta c qu nhiu th la chn th vic la chn s tr nn kh khn hn. V th, cng vic ca ngi lm marketing l bit xc nh cc loi sn phm (product lines) c cu trc hp l v kho lo kt hp chng trong mt danh mc sn phm (product mix) nhm to c hi cho khch hng c th chn mua ng nhng g h mong mun tha mn nhu cu. d. Ti a ha cht lng cuc sng (Maximize Life Quality) Nhiu ngi cho rng, cc vn marketing s c gii quyt mt cch ton din v trit hn nu ngi lm marketing ng trn quan im marketing x hi v h thng marketing ly vic nng cao cht lng cuc sng lm mc tiu c bn cho hot ng ca mnh. Tuy nhin, cht lng cuc sng l mt tiu chun kh o lng, b chi phi bi s lng, cht lng, s sn c v gi c sn phm cng nh cht lng ca khung cnh vn ha v mi trng t nhin trong ngi ta tiu dng sn phm. Khi hoch nh chin lc marketing, cc mc tiu ny s c th hin thnh cc mc tiu c th hn : tng doanh s bn, a dng ha sn phm, dn u cht lng sn phm, tng th phn vv... 3. Th no l ngi lm Marketing ? Cng vic ca ngi qun tr ? Marketing theo chc nng hoch nh ? a.Ngi lm Mar: b.cng vic ca ngi qtri: c.Trong chc nng hoch nh: - Lp k hoch nghin cu marketing. - Quyt nh la chn th trng mc tiu cho doanh nghi - Hoch nh chin lc marketing. - Quyt nh danh mc sn phm. - Lp cc chng trnh pht trin sn phm. - Xy dng cc chnh sch nh gi. - Lp cc chng trnh qung co v khuyn mi. - Quyt nh v t chc knh phn phi.

- K hoch hun luyn v o to nhn vin marketing. 4. Cng vic ca ngi lm Marketing theo chc nng t chc , lnh o v kim tra? a. Trong chc nng t chc: - T chc thc hin cc chng trnh nghin cu marketing. - Quyt nh v c cu t chc ca b phn marketing (t chc theo chc nng hay sn phm, theo khu vc a l hay cu trc ma trn ). - Phn cng trch nhim cho mi b phn hot ng. - T chc mng li cc trung gian bn hng v quyt nh v cc a im bn. - Thit lp cc quan h vi chnh quyn , cc c quan truyn thng v cng chng. -Tuyn dng, hun luyn v o to nhn vin marketing. - T chc mng li kho v h thng vn chuyn. - T chc cc hi ngh khch hng, iu hnh vic tham gia hi ch, trin lm. - Quyt nh v thay i gi, ci tin sn phm, t chc hot ng khuyn mi. b. Trong chc nng lnh o: - Thng lng m phn vi cc lc lng lin quan (cng chn quan truyn thng). - Kch thch v ng vin nhn vin bn hng. - Kch thch v ng vin cc trung gian bn hng. c. Trong chc nng kim tra: - Kim tra ngn sch marketing. - So snh chi ph vi ngn sch. - nh gi hiu qu qung co, khuyn mi. - Kim tra s thay i gi v iu chnh gi . - Kim sot h thng phn phi, bn hng. 5. Ni dung tng qut ca tin trnh qun tr Marketing ? Theo J. Mc Cathy, qun tr marketing c ba ni dung ch yu l: - Hoch nh chin lc marketing. - Thc hin chin lc marketing - Kim tra chin lc v cc hot ng marketing. 1. Phn tch c hi th trng Cc doanh nghip u phi c gng tm ra c nhng c hi th trng mi. Khng mt doanh nghip no c th ch trng da vo nhng sn phm v th trng hin c ca mnh mi c. Phn tch cc c hi th trng c tin hnh thng qua phn tch cc yu t trong mi marketing, s thay i ca cc yu t mi trng c th to ra nhng c hi thun li cho doanh nghip hoc cng c th gy ra nhng nguy c i vi hot ng marketing ca doanh nghip. iu c bn l phi phn tch v nhn bit c nhng bin i no c th tr thnh c hi m doanh nghip c th khai thc, hoc nhng tc ng no ca mi trng c th to thnh nhng nguy c v nu tc ng ca cc nguy c ny i vi doanh nghip nh th no ? 2. La chn cc th trng mc tiu Cc doanh nghip cn xc nh r khch hng ca mnh l ai ? H c nhng nhu cu v mong mun g cn c tha mn ? Chin lc marketing cn c xy dng khc bit cho tng nhm khch hng hay l chung cho tt c cc khch hng ca doanh nghip ? iu ny ch c th tr li c trn c s phn on th trng v la chn th trng mc tiu. a. o lng v d bo nhu cu

Vic o lng v d bo nhu cu th trng c tin hnh nhm m bo tnh kh thi ca cc n lc marketing. c th xy dng cc phng n chin lc marketing thch hp, cn phi tin hnh d bo mt cch kh ton din cc vn lin quan n th trng, xu hng tiu dng, tnh hnh cnh tranh... Doanh nghip cn c lng nhu cu hi