CHIẾN LƯỢC MRP 2003

  • View
    1.419

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

DA NANG UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS

SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENTCHIN LC MRP Material requirement planning. Nhm 5

2012

[73- nG hNH SN- nNG]

DANH SCH THNH VIN NHM

CHIN LC MRP. Getting the right materials to the right place at the right time in right quantities.A. TNG QUAN V MRP (Qunh)

I.

MRP L G?-

Trong mt ngnh cng nghip sn xut c hai loi hng tn kho: Hng tn kho hng ha thnh phm v tn kho nguyn liu. Vi tn kho thnh phm, cng ty kim c doanh thu, cn tn kho nguyn vt liu th l nhng thnh phn cn thit sn xut hng ha thnh phm mong mun.

-

MRP (Hoch nh nhu cu vt liu) ni n gin l mt h thng qun l tn kho nguyn liu, l mt h thng thng tin da trn my tnh kim sot hng tn kho v lp k hoch sn xut. MRP lin quan n vic lp k hoch sn xut v kim sot hng tn kho. y l mt h thng kim sot nguyn vt liu, c gng gi cho lng tn kho mc thch hp m bo rng nguyn vt liu lun sn c khi cn n.

-

Mc tiu chnh ca h thng MRP l nh sau: m bo nguyn vt liu , cc thnh phn cu to sn c cho qu trnh sn xut v sn phm cui cng c sn chuyn n khch hng. Duy tr mc tn kho thp nht c th. Lp k hoch cho hot ng sn xut, lch trnh giao hng v cc hot ng mua sm.

-

MRP c bit thch hp i vi h thng sn xut trong nhu cu ca cc b phn cu thnh sn phm v cc bn thnh phm ph thuc vo nhu cu ca cc sn phm phc v cho

nhu cu th trng. Nhu cu i vi sn phm cui cng c gi l nhu cu c lp. Ngc li, nhu cu i vi cc b phn cu thnh c dng cho vic sn xut ra sn phm cui cng li ph thuc vo nhu cu i vi sn phm cui cng. S khc nhau gia nhu cu c lp (independent demands) v nhu cu ph thuc (dependent demands) quan trng trong vic phn loi hng tn kho v trong vic pht trin h thng qun l cc mt hng trong phm vi mi loi nhu cu.

II.

LCH S HNH THNH. T nhng nm 50, hang IBM a cho ra i nhng chic may tinh thng mai u tin chay bng bong in t. Khai quc cng thn nay c goi la 701, co 1KB RAM va dung bia uc l, co kich thc bng ca gian phong va cn mt tram phat in ring. Nhng chic may nay luc u dung trong cac c s nghin cu khoa hoc va c quan qun s, nhng a nhanh chong thu hut s chu y cua cac cng ty co nhu cu ln v lu tr va x ly d liu nh cac cng ty tai chinh, ngn hang va bao him. Nhng nm 60 chng kin s ra i cua hang loat chng trinh quan ly d liu phat trin trn ngn ng COBOL (ngn ng nay vao cui th ky 20 lai tr nn ni ting mt ln na vi la thu pham chinh gy ra S c nm 2000 tn kem cua nhn loai nhiu ty la khc phuc). Rt nhiu d liu hin nay cua cac tp oan tai chinh ln vn con c lu trong CSDL dung COBOL, vi du nh h s bao him nhn tho cua mt ng John nao o bt u mua bao him vao nm 1960 khi ng ta 20 tui, hin nay ng ta 63 tui va vn ang tip tuc la mt khach hang. Khi may tinh ngay cang re hn, manh hn va thn thin vi con ngi hn, cac nha quan ly a sm nhn thy may tinh co th giup ho ng dung c nhiu ly thuyt quan ly quan trong nh Khi lng t hang kinh t (EOQ ) hay H thng quan ly kho tc thi (JIT) vao trong thc t. Nhng vic nay cn x ly d liu

va tinh toan nhanh ma khng th ap ng c nu phai lam bng tay. Do o t gia nhng nm 60 a ln lt xut hin nhiu h thng quan ly da trn may tinh, lam ao ln cac ky thut quan ly truyn thng. Dn dn vai tro cua CNTT a thay i, t n thun la mt cng cu tr giup nng cao nng sut a tr thanh cng cu chu ao giup doanh nghip tao s chuyn bin trit trong cach lam vic, tit kim chi phi, nng cao cht lng san phm cung nh cai thin ang k quan h vi khach hang. -

Trong nhng nm 1980,khi hot ng sn xut c m rng ,cc nh sn sut pht trin cc h thng tnh ton cc yu cu v ti nguyn ca mt hot ng sn xut da trn d bo doanh s bn hng . tnh ton cc nguyn liu cn thit dng trong sn xut sn phm v tin mua nhng vt liu cng vi my tnh v thi gian lao ng cn thit.T ,qun l sn xut nhn ra rng h cn phi s dng my tnh v cng ngh phn mm qun l thng tin.

-

Ban u,hot ng sn xut xy dng trn chng trnh phn mm ty chnh chy trn my tnh ln. Sau ,k hoch vt liu yu cu (MRP) dn dn c tch hp trn h thng thng tin c tm nhn . Cc MRP h thng thng tin gip cc nh qun l xc nh s lng ,thi gian ca nguyn liu mua hng v h tr qun l vi cc b phn khc ca qu trnh sn xut.

-

Qu trnh pht trin, trong khi MRP ch yu lin quan vi cc vt liu, MRPII c quan tm vi cc tch hp ca tt c cc kha cnh ca qu trnh sn xut, bao gm c vt t, ti chnh v quan h con ngi. Ging nh ngy hm nay ca h thng ERP, MRPII c thit k tch hp rt nhiu thng tin ,qun l mt c s d liu tp trung. Tuy nhin, phn cng, phn mm, v quan h cng ngh c s d liu ca nhng nm 1980 khng tin b cung cp cc tc v kh nng chy cc h thng ny trong thi gian thc, v chi ph ca cc h thng ny

l cao i vi hu ht cc doanh nghip. Tuy nhin, tm nhn c thnh lp, v thay i trong cc quy trnh kinh doanh c bn cng vi nhng tin b nhanh chng trong cng ngh dn n chi ph t hn trong vic thit lp h thng MRP ,nn h thng ny c cc doanh nghip ln v nhiu doanh nghip nh p dng ngy hm nay.

III.

H THNG MRP. H thng MRP gm c MPS (lch trnh sn xut tng th), Product Structure Records (bn ghi cu trc sn phm) hay gi l BOM (nh mc nguyn vt liu) v Inventory status records (bn ghi v tnh trng hng tn kho). y l nhng u vo c

bn ca h thng MRP, khng c chng, h thng MRP khng th hot ng. Nhu cu i vi sn phm cui cng c lp qua rt nhiu thi im v c ghi li trn bng MPS. Lch trnh sn xut tng th cho bit mi mt hng cn bao nhiu v khi no th n cn n. Bn ghi cu trc sn phm, hay c gi l bill of material (BOM), cha cc thng tin trn mi mt hng hay cc bn thnh phm c yu cu sn xut sn phm cui cng. Bn ghi v tnh trng hng tn cha cc thng tin v tnh trng tn kho ca tt c cc mt hng. Cc bn ghi ny phi c cp nht lin tc duy tr tnh trung thc ca cc bn ghi. MRP s xc nh tng nhu cu cc b phn cu thnh t lch trnh sn xut tng th v bn ghi cu trc sn phm.

1. u vo ca qu trnh MRP.

a. Demand Forecasting (D bo nhu cu)

Cho bit s lng nhu c hng nm hay theo tng n v thi gian cho nh sn xut bit s lng sn phm cn c sn xut.

b. Bill of material (BOM nh mc nguyn vt liu):

c xem l mt d liu tng th quan trng, l mt danh sch cha thng tin tt c cc nguyn liu, thnh phn cu to, cc thnh phn con v cc nguyn liu khc cn thit hon thnh sn phm cui cng. (Hay ngn gn hn l bng nh mc cc nguyn vt liu cn thit sn xut mt sn phm theo tng cng on).

Mi ha n thng c sp xp thnh cc phn ring bit cng ty c th nhn thy nhng vt liu no c s dng trong tng giai on sn xut, xc nh s lng vt liu cn thit cho vic hon thnh sn phm cui cng.

BOM c s dng trong cc t chc nh th no? C rt nhiu phn mm sn c lu tr cc thng tin v cc item v chun b ha n nguyn vt liu mt cch t ng. Thng tin c trn BOM: Quanlity (s lng mi b phn cn c cho mi d n), Item ID (m hng), Description of item (miu t v mn hng, cung cp vic xc nhn tnh chnh xc ca mn hng c t), Cost of item (chi ph mn hng), Total Project Cost (Tng chi ph d n).c. Master Production Schedule (MPS)

MPS c pht trin t d bo v n t hng ca khch hng cng ty cho cc hng mc cui cng, yu cu tn kho an ton v n t hng ni b. MPS s cung cp cc chi tit nh bao nhiu n v sn phm cui cng bn s mun c trong nhng khong thi gian khc nhau. tc l, Sn phm cui cng c sn xut l g?

-

S lng ca mi loi sn phm? Khi no th sn phm sn sng gi i?

d. Inventory status File (ISF)

Cng ty s c bng bo co v tnh trng hng tn kho cho tt c cc b phn cu thnh sn xut sn phm cui cng... Thng tin c sn trong tp tin v hng tn kho cn phi chnh xc nu khng n s nh hng n MRP v vic k hoch sn xut. e. Leadtime. Lead time c gi l u vo c bn ca MRP. H thng MRP lin quan n 2 loi Lead time, Ordering leadtime v manufacturing Lead time: Ordering lead time gii quyt vn thu mua nguyn vt liu. C cc b phn cu thnh c sn xut trong phm vi cng ty v quy trnh ny cn tn nhiu thi gian. iu ny cp n manufacturing leadtime. Leadtime l u vo ch yu ca h thng MRP v c bt k d liu khng chnh xc no s gy hi n quy trnh sn xut. Manufacturing leadtime c th c thit lp bng vic quan st thi gian quy trnh da trn cc c s mt cch thng xuyn v duy tr vic cp nht cc h s mt cch nh k. Tuy nhin ordering leadtime l quan trng hn v n ph thuc vo cc nh cung ng ca chng ta. Do vy, ngi ta phi tin hnh vic kim sot thch hp hn i vi ordering leadtime chy h thng MRP hiu qu hn.

2. u ra ca qu trnh MRP.

Cc thng tin ch yu t MRP c th gp thnh 5 nhm: Cc thng bo t hng xc nh s lng mi mt hng phi t trong thi k hin ti. Cc t hng theo k hoch xc nh s lng v thi hn cho cc t hng c t trong tng lai bo m tin . Thng bo xt li k hoch xc nh nhng thay i v s lng cn iu chnh i vi cc n hng d dang. Thng bo lp li k hoch tin : Xc nh thi hn han thnh t hng cn phi iu chnh cho t hng no v iu chnh n khi no.

IV.

TNH CHT H THNG MRP. - MRP cho bit c thng tin qu gi: + Khi no th khch hng yu cu v nhu cu phi c tho mn, nhu cu ny c th l cn trong khong thi gian no , hay l tt c u cn trong mt lc. + Khi no th lng d tr cn kit. + Khi no n t hng b sung c gi i. + Khi no nhn c hng. - MRP a ra yu cu hu b nhng n t hng khng cn thit. - MRP a ra cc xut ti u ho vic mua hng bng cch tnh ton li thi im c th nhn nguyn vt liu (t nh cung cp) v thi im tht s cn s hng cho sn xut. - MRP da trn s lng hng cn sn xut trn 1 giai on v: + Xc nh s lng tt c nguyn vt liu thnh phn sn xut ra hng ho . + Xc nh cc yu t v thi gian, thi im cn cc nguyn vt liu cho sn xut

-

Kt qu thu c l h thng hoch nh chi tit

cc loi nguyn vt liu, chi tit, thi gian biu c th nhm cung ng ng thi im cn thit..

V.

C IM CA H THNG MRP. (Ton+ Huyn) 1. u im: -

Tng hiu qu kinh doanh. Tng hiu qu sn xut. Thng tin kp thi v chnh xc. Gi mc tn kho mc ti thiu. Gim cc nguyn vt liu c. To tin cy cao i vi khch hng. Gim thi gian nhn ri. p ng nhanh hn vi nhu cu th trng. Thit lp mc tn kho an ton cho trng hp khn cp.

-

2. Nhc im: Khng tn dng ht din tch kho hng (nu kho ln). i ng nhn vin cha trnh thc hin hoch nh. Nu 1 mc xch trong quy trnh cung ng vt t gp tr ngi s nh hng n tt c nhng khu sau.-

Tng chi ph t hng.

-

Tng chi ph vn chuyn v chi ph n v. Chi ph ht hng cao. Vic thc hin h thng MRP c th tn rt nhiu chi