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The Endocrine System. How will you learn about the endocrine system? Introductory lecture – 1 to 2 classes Poster project completed in groups of 2 or

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  • The Endocrine System

  • How will you learn about the endocrine system?Introductory lecture1 to 2 classesPoster project completed in groups of 2 or 3Student driven learning4 to 5 classesPoster sessionsPresent your poster to the class just like its done in the biotech and medical industries.2 classesNo dissection for this system

  • Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Story time

  • OverviewWhat are the two systems that are in charge of controlling and coordinating the other systems in the body?Nervous systemEndocrine system

  • Nervous SystemControls all activities that must happen quickly over a short period of time.Movement of skeletal musclesOrgan activity (smooth muscles)Digestive systemEsophagusStomachIntestines

  • Endocrine SystemControls all activities that happen slowly and/or over a long period of time.The activity of the pituitary gland (the control center of the endocrine system) is controlled by the nervous system.Allows the endocrine system to respond to stimuli from the environment.Controls the body using compounds called Hormones.

  • Endocrine SystemAll physiologic events that occur in the body are influenced by the endocrine system: There are no cell types, organs, or processes that are not influenced by hormones.The endocrine system has a hand in regulating every single major process that goes on in our bodies.All "large" physiologic effects are mediated by multiple hormones acting together:Normal growth from birth to adulthood.

  • Hormones, Receptors, and Target CellsHormones: chemical compounds secreted into the blood stream by one type of cell which effect the functioning of other types of cells.The affected cells can be located close to or far away from the cells producing the hormones.The affected cells are called target cells.

  • Hormones, Receptors, and Target CellsExampleHormone A moves through the body via the blood stream.In doing so, Hormone A comes into contact with essentially every cell in the body.Only specific cell types are affected by Hormone A.Why are there only certain target cells that Hormone A affects? Why doesnt the hormone affect all cells with which it comes in contact?

  • Hormones, Receptors, and Target CellsGood fitBad fitHormone ATwo different receptorsTarget cell for Hormone ANot a target cell for Hormone ACellsHormone ABinds toReceptorHormone ADoes notBind toReceptorCauses aChange toOccur

  • Agonist vs. AntagonistAgonist: Molecules that bind to a receptor triggering a biological event to occur in the cell. Antagonist: Molecules that bind to a receptor and block the binding of an agonist, but fail to trigger a biological event.

  • Agonist vs. AntagonistAgonist bound and causinga biological event.Antagonist bound, not causinga biological event and blockingthe agonist from binding.Same receptor

  • Control of Hormone LevelsHormone concentration in the blood stream is determined by three factors:Rate of productionProduction of hormones is the most highly regulated aspect of endocrine control.It is mediated by positive and negative feedback loops.Rate of deliveryhigh blood flow delivers more hormone than low blood flow. Rate of eliminationBody eventually metabolizes and excretes hormones.

  • Control of Hormone LevelsFeedback LoopsPositive feedback loops exist in the endocrine system.Negative feedback loops are far more prevalent.What is a negative feedback loop?When the product of a given process inhibits further production of that product.Production of Product A inhibits further production of Product A.Can you think of an example in everyday life? Hint: You all have at least one in your house!ThermostatControls the heat in your home.

  • Thermostat: Negative Feedback LoopA thermostat has a set point.This is the temperature you would like the air in your house to be.A thermostat controls a furnace which produces heat.When the furnace produces enough heat to increase the air temperature above the set point of the thermostat, the thermostat is triggered and shuts off the furnace.Heat is giving negative feedback to the source of heat.When temperature drops back below the set point, negative feedback is gone, and the furnace comes back on.

  • Negative Feedback LoopFurnaceElectricity68FurnaceOnHEATCurrent Temp.

  • Negative Feedback LoopFurnaceElectricity69FurnaceOnHEATCurrent Temp.

  • Negative Feedback LoopFurnaceElectricity70FurnaceOffHEATCurrent Temp.

  • Negative Feedback LoopFurnaceElectricity69FurnaceOnHEATCurrent Temp.

  • How does this compare to endocrine negative feedback loops?ExampleGeneration of thyroid hormones.The thyroid is one of the many glands associated with the endocrine system.The amount of thyroid hormone produced is negatively controlled by the concentration of thyroid hormone in the blood.

  • Thyroid Hormone: Negative Feedback LoopHypothalamusNeuronsPituitary GlandThyroid Gland(TRH)(TSH)(Thyroid Hormone)

  • Poster ProjectIn groups of 2 or 3 research an endocrine gland and at least one associated disorder.Create a poster with various pieces of required information.Present the poster to the class: poster sessions.Will be graded as a test and will be the only assessment for this unit.

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