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Endocrine system

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  • 1. CHEMICAL SIGNAL IN ANIMALS(ENDOCRINE SYSTEM) (endocrine gland) extracellular fluid (exocrine gland)

2. (endocrine cell) chemical control chemicalmessenger molecularmessenger 3. Chemical messengermolecular messenger 5 1. Paracrine (local regulator) 2. Neurotransmitter 3. Neurohormone4. Hormone 5. Pheromone 4. 4 1. (Polypeptide hormone)2. (Steroid hormone)3. (Amine hormone)4.(Fatty acid hormone) 5. chemical messenger -(receptor) 1. (a b&c)2. (bc) 6. 2 1.(cell membrane receptor) (signal pathway) second messenger 2 1.1cyclic AMP 7. 1.2 Ca2+inositol triphosphate (IP3)enzyme=phospholipase CPIP2=phosphatidylinositol biphosphateIP3=inositol triphosphateDAG=diacylglycerol 8. 2. , , Vitamin D3, NO-(hormone-receptor complex) transcription factor- 9. negative feedback 10. homeostasis PTH Calcitonin(antagonistic) 2 11. 1.Brain hormone(BH) neurosecretory cells corpus cardiacum2.BHprothoracicgl. ecdysone3.ecdysone 4.Juvenile hormone(JH) corpusallatum metamorphosis JH 12. ()- 9 -Tropic hormones: 13. ()- -(neurosecretory cell) (releasinghomrone) (inhibitinghormone) 14. (anterior pituitary gland or adenohypophysis)- releasing/inhibiting portal vessel 15. (anterior pituitary gland or adenohypophysis)Prolactin : Lactogenic Hormone (LTH)prolactin - RH/ prolactin - IH Hypothalamus(mammary gland) androgen - - - - 16. (anterior pituitary gland or adenohypophysis)- Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)/ Thyrotrophic Hor. Thyroid Thyroxine(T4), Triiodotryronin(T3), Calcitonin- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Adrenal cortex() Cortisol(Glucocorticotrophic Hor.)Mineralocorticoid(Aldosterone), Adrenal sex hormones- Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) Melanocyte Melanin- Endorphin 17. (Posterior pituitary gland or neurohypophysis)-- axon 18. (Pineal gland / Epiphysis) Melatonin 19. (Pineal gland / Epiphysis)Melatonin, , 20. (Thyroid gland)Follicular cell FollicleThyroglobulin(protein) + ITyrosine(amino acid)T3, T4-Thyroxine (T4)-Triiodothyronine (T3)T3 T4 4 T4 T3Parafollicular cell(C-Cell)-Calcitonin 21. Thyroid Hormones T3, T4-Thyroxine (T4)/Tetraiodothyronine-Triiodothyronine (T3)- Metabolism, - +GH = Growth- Development of the brain- Metamorphosis (Amphibian) 22. Thyroid Hormones T3, T4-Thyroxine (T4)/Tetraiodothyronine-Triiodothyronine (T3)HypothyroidismCretinism Myxedema 23. Thyroid Hormones T3, T4-Thyroxine (T4)/Tetraiodothyronine-Triiodothyronine (T3)HyperthyroidismSimple Goiter Toxic Goiter 24. Thyroid Hormones Calcitonin Parafollicular cell(C-cell)- Ca -()-Parathyroid Hormones Parathormone- Ca -()- 25. Parathyroid Hormones Parathormone 26. (Calcitonin : Parathormone) 27. (adrenal gland)MineralocorticoidsCortisolAdrenal sex hormones- 2 adrenal cortex()adrenal medulla() 28. (adrenal gland)-- fatty acid-cardiovascular respiratory systemautonomicnervous system(sympathetic)-Adrenal sex hormonesSecondary sexualcharacteristic(adrenogenital syndrome)-Mineralocorticoid aldosterone Na+-Glucocorticoid noncarbohydratesource - 2 adrenal cortex()adrenal medulla() 29. (pancreas)-A- cell : Glucagon-D cell : Somatostatin-B cell : Insulin 30. (pancreas)-endocrinegland (islets of Langerhans) exocrine gland()-Islet of Langerhans alpha cells( glucagon) betacells ( insulin) 31. -insulin glucagon (antagonistic):insulin (), , :glucagon Diabetes mellitus () (Hyperglycemia) ( = 90mg/100ml) insulin insulinSomatostatin Insulin, Glucagon 32. (Thymus gland)

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