2.Teori-Teori Motivasi Dan Pendekatan Falsafah

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motivasi dan emosi

Text of 2.Teori-Teori Motivasi Dan Pendekatan Falsafah

2. Sejarah Dan PerkembanganTeori Motivasi

kajian motivasi telah bermula sejak zaman purba Greeks lagi Perkembangan kajian boleh dilihat dari 2 perspektif utama:

FALSAFAH FISIOLOGI

Perspektif falsafah

Tokoh awalnya seperti: Socrates, Plato,Aristotle

Plato(TRIPARTITE) 1. Primitif (Appetitive) 2. Kedua (Competitive) 3. Tinggi (Calculating)

Aristotle1.Makanan (nutritive) 2.Sensitif 3.Rasional

Perspektif FisiologiHippocrates (dlm Decatanzaro, 99) Peranan otak organ utama intelektual manusia Antesedan fisiologi seperti saraf motor, tenaga saraf spesifik, implus saraf elektrik semulajadi, fungsi spesifik yg terdapat di otak (Petri,1996)

100 tahun kemudian (DUALISME) JIWA (jasad dan akal) Keduanya berada di tahap hirarki yang sama Perbezaannya hanya elemen-eleman yang terkandung di dalamnya

Descartes (Decatanzaro, 99)Sesuaikan aspek fisiologi dan kerohanian melalui konsep dualisme Jasad dan akal yg menentukan segala t/laku yg akan di ambil oleh ind Batang pinal dan kalenjer kecil di pusat otak turut b/t/jawab mengawal minda dan rohani

Perkembangan kajian motivasi tidak begitu pesat jika dibandingkan dgn perkembangan sub bidang psikologi yg lain 1952 diberi nafas baru U. Nebraska adakan simposium motivasi Tokoh2 lihat m/s 18

Era mini teori (1960-70)w/b/pun banyak dipengaruhi oleh teori utama (kehendak,naluri dan dorongan)

MINI TEORI

Achievement motivation (Atkinson, 1964) Attributional theory of achievement motivation (Weiner,1972) Cognitive dissonance theory(Festinger, 1957) Effectance motivation (White, 1959; Harter,1978a) Expectancy x value theory (Vroom,1964) Intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1975)

Goal - setting theory (Locke, 1968) Learned helplessness theory (Seligman, 1975) Reactance theory (Brehm, 1966) Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977) Self-schemas (Markus, 1977)

Peralihan pandangan tentang konsep motivasi

Cofer & Appley (1960) cuba ubah perspektif motivasi daripada prinsip semulajadi, biologi dan fisiologi kepada prinsip pertumbuhan

Revolusi Kognitif1970, Psikologi Zeitgeist Motivasi berasaskan KOGNITIF Perancangan, matlamat, ekspektasi, kepercayaan, atribusi, insentif dan ganjaran sebagai PENGGERAK motivasi

Reeve (2001)Empat tahap utama Teori besar pertama (the first grand theory)=KEHENDAK (WILL) Teori besar kedua (the second grand theory) =NALURI (INSTINCT) Teori besar ketiga (the third grand theory) =DORONGAN (DRIVE) MINI-TEORI

Smith (1998)Naluri Dorongan Insentif Kebangkitan optimal Hirarki keperluan Maslow Kognitif Psikologi evolusi

Baron (2001)Dorongan Kebangkitan Ekspektasi Matlamat-seting

Sternberg (1997)

FISIOLOGI (penyelenggaraan hemeostasis, proses bertentanganopponent-process theory), kebangkitan) PERSONALITI (keperluan, keperluan pencapaian, keperluan hirarki) KOGNITIF (intrinsik-ektrinsik, kepelikan(curiosity), penentuan-diri, kecekapan-diri, matlamatperancangan)

Teori MotivasiKehendak Teori Naluri Teori Dorongan Teori Insentif Teori KebangkitanTeori

Teori Kehendak

WILL = inisiatif dan tindakan yang terus dan segera to act and what to do when acting kehendak juga kuasa kepada minda yg mengawal jasad grand teory krn semua t/laku bergerak atas dasar kehendak n/begitu sifatnya terlalu falsafah

Teori Naluri

Charles Darwin (1859)> automatik, mekanistik, genetik baka William James (1890) (naluri fizikal & mental) McDougall(1908)> secara semulajadi, genetik (lari, jijik, ingin tahu, keaiban diri, keyakinan diri, pembiakan, kemesraan, pemerolehan dan pembinaan) 1920 = 6000 naluri

Teori Dorongan

Woodworth (1918) - pelopor prinsipnya asas biologi Ketidakseimbangan (keperluan psikologi defisit) maka akan terhasil DORONGAN Pengurangan DORONGAN hasilkan pembelajaran HOMEOSTASIS need+drive+homeotasis

Andaian teori dorongan

Freud, 1915 & Hull, 1943

1. Dorongan muncul drp keperluan2 badan 2. Pengurangan dorongan menghasilkan pembelajaran 3. Dorongan memberikan tenaga kepada t/laku

Teori Insentif1960 Fenomena motivasi yg tiada kaitan dengan keperluan biologi dipengaruhi idea hedonism Motivasi akan wujud drp rangsangan luaran (ganjaran) Persoalannya mengapa manusia bermotivasi kerana ganjaran? stimulasi {positif, ganjaran & objek}

Ada 3 pekara utama dlm motivasi insentif 1. Insentif drp persekitaran (external event) 2. thp motivasi daripada pengalaman 3. gambaran tahap motivasi berubah mengikut masa sbb insentif persekitaran berubah

Teori Bangkitan

Sistem bangkitan drp neurophysiological di otak (Moruzzi & Mogoun, 1949) central stimulation vs physiological stimulation of biological need or environmental stimulation of insentives Hukum Yerkes -Dodson bangkitan optimum(keselesaan)

APAKAH TEORI MOTIVASI UTAMA (Reeve, 2001: 33 35 & Petri,1996:19-22)

Post-Drive Theory Years Physiological sources of motivation > DRIVE Environmental sources of motivation >INCENTIVES Central/brain sources of motivation > AROUSAL DISCREPANCY OR EQUILIBRIUM

Kewujudan Mini-teori MotivasiLebih spesifik dan teliti Mengapa ia lebih popular ? Jurnal 1-1977>Motivation and emotion (emperikal sifatnya)

1987 - Cognition and emotion

Abbreviated list of the mini-theoriesAchievement motivation theory (Atkinson, 1964) Attributional theory of achievement motivation (Weiner, 1972) Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) Effectance motivation(White, 1959; Harter, 1978a)

Expectancy x value theory (Vroom, 1964) Goal-setting theory (Locke, 1968) Intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1975) Learned helplessness theory (Seligman, 1975) Reactance theory (Brehm, 1966) Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977) Self-schemas (Markus, 1977)

Abbreviated list of the mini-theoriesAchievement motivation theory (Atkinson, 1964) Attributional theory of achievement motivation (Weiner, 1972) Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) Effectance motivation(White, 1959; Harter, 1978a)

Expectancy x value theory (Vroom, 1964) Goal-setting theory (Locke, 1968) Intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1975) Learned helplessness theory (Seligman, 1975) Reactance theory (Brehm, 1966) Self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977) Self-schemas (Markus, 1977)

Mengapa mini-teori lebih digemari berbanding grand-teori Active Nature of the Person Cognitive Revolution Applied, Socially Relevent Research

I. Active Nature of the Persondulu ada keperluan - move inactive-inert so motivasi to-arouse the process of arousing action, sustaining the activity in progress and regulating the pattern of activity motivation is constant, never ending, fluctuating and complex mid 1960 > Charles Cofer & Mortimer Appley> membahagikan teori motivasi kpd >Pasif;Aktif dan Pertumbuhan

2. Cognitive revolutiondorongan, keperluan, lapar, bangkitan, hemeotasis {base bio & fisiologi} semulajadi

1970 > Zeitgeist Psikologi > Revolusi Kognitif > internal mental process(konstruk kognitif dan konstruk struktur)

konstruk kognitif {plan, matl, ekspektasi,kepercayaan,atribusi, k-diri} konstruk struktur {ganjaran insentif} kog > kemanusiaan drp mekanikal buku Theories of Motivation:From Mechanism to Cognition (Carven & Scheiri,1981; Marcus&Wurf, 1987)

3. Applied, Socially Relevent Researchhumanistic tentang idea motivasi hasil dari desakan biologi dan kawalan persekitaran Maslow & Roger motivasi pertumbuhan aplikasi motivasi di sekolah,kerja, dayatindak-stress, hunger kpd bulimia, dieting, obesity ect.

Why behave? Tdk ptg > to be alive is to be active Why does behaviour vary in its intensity? Why does the person do one thing rather than onother?

Tiga elemen utama motivasi Tenaga Arah tuju Matlamat

3 elemen ini merupakan penyebab utama untuk manusia bertingkah laku

Mengapa keamatan berbeza?

Motif dalaman (kehendak, kognitif dan emosi) peristiwa luaran (rangsangan drp persekitaran, kontek sosial)

Hubungan diantara kajian motivasi dan emosi dengan bidang lain di dalam Psikologi (lihat Reeve,2001:42 rajah 2.1)

Motivation study in the 21st century is populated by multiple perspectives and multiple voices, all of which contribute a different piece to the puzzle of motivation and emotion study.Relationship of Motivation Study to Psychology s Areas of Specialization

Social Industrial/ Organization al

Developmen tal

Figure 2.2

Educational

Motivation and Emotion Domain-specific Answers to These Core Questions:Personality What causes behavior? Why does behavior vary in its intensity?

Cognitive

Clinical Counseling Health

Physiologic al

Perspektif Motivasi (Reeve,2001:38-39) Tingkahlaku Biologi/fisiologi Kognitif Evolusi Kemanusiaan Psikoanalitik

The Many Voices in Motivation Study Box 2 Motivations new paradigm is one in which behavior is energized and directed not by a single grand cause but, instead, by a multitude of multi-level and co-acting influences. As expressed in Box 2, most motivational states can be (and indeed need to be) understood at multiple levelsfrom a neurological level, a cognitive level, a social level, and so on.__________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________

Perspective:Behavioral Neurological Physiological Cognitive Social-cognitive

Motives emerge fromEnvironmental incentives Brain activations Hormonal activity Mental events and thoughts Ways of thinking guided by exposure to other people Groups, organizations, and nations Genes and genetic endowment Encouraging the human potential

__________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________

Cultu