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Otomasi Sistem - 02 1 Otomasi Sistem Peralatan Otomasi Sistem: Sensor dan Aktuator Ir. Jos Pramudijanto, M.Eng. Jurusan Teknik Elektro FTI ITS Telp. 5947302 Fax.5931237 Email: [email protected]

Peralatan Otomasi Sistempersonal.its.ac.id/files/material/3889-jos-ee-Otomasi236...Otomasi Sistem - 02 2 Objektif: Pengertian Sensor dan Aktuator Sensors: Position sensors Velocity

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Otomasi Sistem - 02 1

Otomasi Sistem

Peralatan Otomasi Sistem:Sensor dan Aktuator

Ir. Jos Pramudijanto, M.Eng.Jurusan Teknik Elektro FTI ITS

Telp. 5947302 Fax.5931237Email: [email protected]

Otomasi Sistem - 02 2

Objektif:Pengertian Sensor dan AktuatorSensors:

Position sensorsVelocity sensorsAcceleration sensorsTemperature sensorsForce sensorsPressure sensorsLight sensors

ActuatorsMotorRelayAktuator Hidrolik

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Pengertian Sensors dan Aktuator

Sensor - an electronic transducer that converts some physical quantity into an electrical quantity

Aktuator - an electronic transducer that converts electrical energy into a physical quantity.

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Position SensorsPotentiometer (rotary and linear)

Proximity switch (mechanical)

Piezo-ceramic, piezo-resistiveLVDT

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Potensiometer Sensor analog yang bekerja seperti divider

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Potensiometer untuk posisi

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Analog and Digital SensorsRotary Linear

Optical Encoder

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Rotary Optical Encoder

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Increment EncoderGenerally Have two picks up that are 90 degrees out of Phase (A and B) This allows you to determine the direction of rotation and thus count up or downBy using the rising and falling edges of both A and B we can get 4 times the number of slots.May have one or more index marks for homing.

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Absolute EncoderGray Code Vs BinaryGray Code only changes by one bit per transition.At least one sensor per track.

0111

01 00

0111

00 10

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Synchro

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Rangkaian Synchro

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Velocity SensorsAccelerometer (piezo-electric)

Optical Encoder absolute or incremental position, direction

Tachometer shaft velocity, typically a PM DC motor

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Tachogenerator

Sensor ini konstruksinya mirip motor DC magnet permanen.Tegangan keluaran yang dihasilkan berupa tegangan DC.

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Acceleration sensors

Accelerometers measure acceleration, vibration and shock measurementsTypical device:outputs from 100m to 2.5V/g.

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Gaya/Torsi

Strain gage

Piezo-electric (AC coupled)

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Sensor Tekanan

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Types of Strain Gages

Rosette GagesSingle Element

*Apply set of equations to determine coordinate stress components.

Rata-rata stress pada luasan gage. Ukuran gage sangat penting!

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Load sensorsSee: http://www.entran.com/ela.htm100 through 10,000Lbs

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Sensor Temperatur

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What are thermocouples?Thermocouples operate under the principle that a circuit made by connecting two dissimilar metals produces a measurable voltage (emf-electromotive force) when the two ends of the thermocouple circuit are at different temperatures.

They are inexpensive, small in size, rugged and remarkably accurate when used with an understanding of their peculiarities.

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Bahan Material Thermocouple

Chromel - Constantan (E Curve)Iron - Constantan (J Curve)Chromel - Alumel (K Curve)Platinum+Rhodium 13% - Platinum (R Curve)Platinum+Rhodium 10% - Platinum (S Curve)Copper - Constantan (T Curve)Tungsten - Rhenium (C Curve)

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Thermocouple Material Vs EMFTypes T, J, and K are most commonly used thermocouples.

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RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector)Bekerja berdasarkan perubahan resistansi logam karena perubahan temperaturBerbagai logam yang sering digunakan untuk RTD

platina (linier, sangat mahal, umum dipakai)Nikel (range temperatur lebih rendah, lebih murah, nonlinier) Nickle alloys (range temperatur lebih rendah, lebih murah)Tembaga (range temperatur lebih rendah)

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Thermistor

= oT1

T1

oeRR

constant material = re temperatumeasured = T

Tat measured resistance reference = Rwhere

oo

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Sensor Temperatur IC LM335

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Sensor Temperatur IC AD590/AD592

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Light sensors

Photo-voltaic cell

CdS sensor (R output)

Phototransistor

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Non-Contact SensorsUltrasonic

OpticalMagnetic (Inductive, Reed, Hall Effect)Laser vibrometer, interferometerCapacitiveEddy current

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AktuatorRoda Gigi

Servomotor

Inverter

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AktuatorDriver Amplifier

Silinder Hidrolik

Selenoid Hidrolik

Selenoides

q-inq-out q-out

x

ko

q-inq-out q-out

k1

mL

BL Vo

Z

A2P2

A1P1

Y

Distribut ion Valve

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Relay Mekanik dan Elektrik

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Silinder Hidrolik

Otomasi SistemObjektif:Pengertian Sensors dan AktuatorPosition SensorsPotensiometer Potensiometer untuk posisiAnalog and Digital SensorsRotary Optical EncoderIncrement EncoderAbsolute EncoderSynchroRangkaian SynchroVelocity SensorsTachogeneratorAcceleration sensorsGaya/TorsiSensor TekananTypes of Strain GagesLoad sensorsSee: http://www.entran.com/ela.htmSensor Temperatur What are thermocouples?Bahan Material ThermocoupleThermocouple Material Vs EMFRTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) ThermistorSensor Temperatur IC LM335Sensor Temperatur IC AD590/AD592Light sensorsNon-Contact SensorsAktuatorAktuatorRelay Mekanik dan ElektrikSilinder Hidrolik