Uniunea Europeana - date generale

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  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    European CommissionDirectorate-General for Communication

    Manuscript updated in March 2010HTTP://EC.EUROPA.EU/PUBLICATIONS/YOUNG/INDEX_EN.HTM


    Europe: a beautiful continent with a fascinating history !t has produced many of the world"sfamous scientists# in$entors# artists and composers# as well as popular entertainers andsuccessful sports people

    %or centuries Europe was plagued by wars and di$isions &ut in the last '0 years or so# thecountries of this old continent ha$e at last been coming together in peace# friendship andunity# to wor( for a better Europe and a better world

    )his boo( for children *roughly + to 12 years old, tells the story simply and clearly %ull of

    interesting facts and colourful illustrations# it gi$es a li$ely o$er$iew of Europe and eplainsbriefly what the European .nion is and how it wor(s

    Go to the website: http://europaeu/europago/eplore

    ou"ll find lots of fun ui33es and games to test your (nowledge4

    5a$e fun eploring4

    European .nion


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    Lets exp"e E#"pe!

    He! $e%&e t E#"pe!

    6e come from different countries and spea( different languages# but this continent is thehome we share

    Come with us and let"s eplore Europe together4 !t will be an ad$enturous 7ourney throughtime and space and you"ll find out loads of interesting things

    8s we go along# test yourself to see how much you"$e learnt Go to our websitee#"p'.e#/e#"p'(/exp"eand try the ui3 about each chapter

    8t school# eplore further4 8s( your teacher to tell you more about each of the topics in thisboo( )hen do some deeper research in the school library or on the !nternet ou could e$enwrite your own boo(let about what you ha$e disco$ered

    9eady )hen let"s begin4


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    $)'ts *+ t)*s ,-P'(e

    8 continent to disco$er

    Getting around;anguages in EuropeClimate and nature%arming)he sea8 7ourney through time%orty famous faces < pull-out boo()he story of the European .nion6hat the E. does)he E. and its neighbours < map)he European .nion countries;et"s eplore Europe4 =ui35ow the E. ta(es decisions)omorrow>and beyond.seful lin(s for you and your teacher


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    A %+t*+e+t t *s%0e"

    Europe is one of the world"s se$en continents )he others are 8frica# @orth and Aouth 8merica#8ntarctica# 8sia and 8ustralia/Bceania

    Europe stretches all the way from the 8rctic in the north to the Mediterranean Aea in the south# andfrom the 8tlantic Bcean in the west to the .ral mountains *in 9ussia, in the east !t has many ri$ers#la(es and mountain ranges )he map on page tells you the names of some of the biggest ones

    )he highest mountain in Europe is Mount Elbrus# in the Caucasus mountains# on the border between9ussia and Georgia !ts highest pea( is '2 metres abo$e sea le$el

    )he highest mountain in western Europe is Mont &lanc# in the 8lps# on the border between %rance and!taly !ts summit is o$er 00 metres abo$e sea le$el

    8lso in the 8lps is ;a(e Gene$a < the largest freshwater la(e in western Europe !t lies between%rance and Awit3erland# goes as deep as ?10 metres and holds about + trillion litres of water

    )he largest la(e in central Europe is &alaton# in 5ungary !t is FF (ilometres *(m, long and co$ers anarea of about '00 suare (ilometres *(m2, @orthern Europe has e$en bigger la(es# including Aaimaain %inland *1 1F (m2, and Hnern in Aweden *more than 00 (m2, )he largest la(e in Europe as awhole is ;a(e ;adoga !t is located in north-western 9ussia and it is the 1th largest la(e in the world!ts surface co$ers an area of 1F F00 (m2

  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    T)e %+t*+e+t 1 E#"pe



    *1, @orwegian Aea*2, @orth Aea*?, Mediterranean Aea*, &lac( Aea*, &altic Aea*', 8tlantic Bcean*F, English Channel

    B. RI2ERS

    *, ;oire*+, 9hine*10, Elbe*11, )agus*12, Danube*1?, istula*1, Dnieper *1, olga

    *1', 6estern D$ina

    C. LA3ES

    *1F, ;a(e Bnega*1, ;a(e Aaimaa*1+, ;a(e ;adoga*20, ;a(e Hnern*21, ;a(e &alaton*22, ;a(e Gene$a


    *2?, Iyrenees*2, 8lps*2, Caucasus Mountains*2', .ral Mountains*2F, Jolen Mountains*2, Mont &lanc 0 m*2+, Mount Elbrus '2 m

  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    Bne of Europe"s longest ri$ers is the Danube !t rises in the &lac( %orest region of Germany and flowseastwards through 8ustria# Alo$a(ia# 5ungary# Croatia# Aerbia# &ulgaria# Moldo$a and .(raine to9omania# where it forms a delta on the &lac( Aea coast !n all# it co$ers a distance of about 2 0 (m

    Bther big ri$ers include the 9hine *about 1 ?20 (m long,# the Elbe *about 1 1F0 (m, and the ;oire*more than 1 000 (m, Can you find them on the map

    &ig ri$ers are $ery useful for transporting things 8ll (inds of goods are loaded onto barges that carrythem up and down the ri$ers# between Europe"s sea ports and cities far inland


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    Gett*+( '"#+

    Did you (now that railways were in$ented in Europe !t was in England that George Atephenson

    introduced the first passenger train in 12 5is most famous locomoti$e was called Kthe 9oc(et" andit reached speeds of more than 0 (ilometres per hour *(m/h, < which was really fast for those days

    )oday# Europe"s high-speed electric trains are $ery different from those first steam engines )hey are$ery comfortable and they tra$el at speeds of up to ??0 (m/h on specially built trac(s More trac(s arebeing built all the time# to allow people to tra$el uic(ly between Europe"s big cities

    9oads and railways sometimes ha$e to cross mountain ranges# wide ri$ers or e$en the sea Aoengineers ha$e built some $ery long bridges and tunnels )he longest road tunnel in Europe is the;aerdal tunnel in @orway# between &ergen and Bslo !t is more than 2 (m long and was opened inthe year 2000

    )he longest railway tunnel in Europe is the Channel )unnel !t carries Eurostar high-speed trains underthe sea between Calais in %rance and %ol(estone in England# and it"s more than 0 (m long


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    )he highest bridge in the world *2 metres tall, is the Millau iaduct in %rance# which was opened in200

    )wo of the longest bridges in Europe are the Bresund road and rail bridge *1' (m long, betweenDenmar( and Aweden and the asco da Gama road bridge *more than 1F (m long, across the ri$er)agus in Iortugal )he asco da Gama bridge is named after a famous eplorer# and you can readabout him in the chapter K8 7ourney through time"

    Ieople also tra$el around Europe by plane# because air tra$el is uic( Aome of the world"s best planesare built in Europe < for eample# the K8irbus" Different European countries ma(e different parts ofan 8irbus# and then a team of engineers puts the whole plane together

    )he fastest e$er passenger plane# the Concorde# was designed by a team of %rench and &ritishengineers Concorde could fly at 2 1'0 (m/h < twice the speed of sound < and could cross the8tlantic in less than three hours4 *Most planes ta(e about eight hours, Concorde too( its final flight in200?

    %aster than any plane are space roc(ets# such as 8riane < a 7oint pro7ect between se$eral Europeancountries Ieople don"t tra$el in the 8riane roc(et: it is used to launch satellites# which are needed for) and mobile phone networ(s# for scientific research and so on Most of the world"s satellites arenow launched using these European roc(ets

    )he success of Concorde# 8irbus and 8riane show what can be achie$ed when European countrieswor( together

  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    C*&'te '+ +'t#"e

    Most of Europe has a Ktemperate" climate < neither too hot nor too cold )he coldest places are in thefar north and in the high mountains )he warmest places are in the far south and south-east

    )he weather is warmest and driest in summer *roughly Lune to Aeptember, and coldest in winter*roughly December to March,

    Europe had record-brea(ing hot summers in 200? and 200' !s this a sign that the climate is changingClimate change is a worldwide problem that can only be sol$ed if all countries wor( together

    Cp*+( 4*t) t)e 4*+te"

    6ild animals in cold regions usually ha$e thic( fur or feathers to (eep them warm# and their coatsmay be white to camouflage them in the snow Aome spend the winter sleeping to sa$e energy )his iscalled hibernating

    Many species of birds li$e on insects# small water creatures or other food that cannot easily be foundduring cold winter months Ao they fly south in the autumn and don"t return until spring Aome tra$elthousands of (ilometres# across the Mediterranean Aea and the Aahara Desert# to spend the winter in8frica )his seasonal tra$elling is called migrating

    E+56*+( t)e sp"*+( '+ s#&&e"

    6hen spring comes to Europe *March to May,# the weather gets warmer Anow and ice melt &abyfish and insect lar$ae swarm in the streams and ponds Migrating birds return to ma(e their nests andraise their families %lowers open# and bees carry pollen from one plant to another

    )rees put out new lea$es which catch the sunlight and use its energy to ma(e the tree grow !nmountain regions# farmers mo$e their cows up into the high meadows# where there is now plenty offresh grass


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    Cold-blooded animals such as reptiles also need the sun to gi$e them energy !n summer# especially insouthern Europe# you will often see li3ards bas(ing in the sunshine and hear the chirping ofgrasshoppers and cicadas

    A#t#&+: ' t*&e 1 %)'+(e

    !n late summer and autumn# the days grow shorter and the nights cooler Many delicious fruits ripen atthis time of year# and farmers are (ept busy har$esting them @uts too ripen in autumn# and suirrelswill gather and store heaps of them ready for the winter

    Many trees shed their lea$es in autumn because there is no longer enough sunshine for the lea$es to beuseful )hey gradually change from green to shades of yellow# red# gold and brown )hen they fall#carpeting the ground with colour )he fallen lea$es decay# enriching the soil and pro$iding food forfuture generations of plant life

    )his yearly cycle of the seasons# and the changes it brings# ma(e the European countryside what it is< beautiful# and $ery $aried


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    Bn high mountains and in the far north of Europe# farming is impossible because it is too cold forcrops to grow &ut e$ergreen trees such as pines and firs can sur$i$e cold winters )hat is why

    Europe"s coldest places are co$ered with e$ergreen forests Ieople use the wood from these forests toma(e many things < from houses and furniture to paper and cardboard pac(aging

    %urther south# most of the land is suitable for farming !t produces a wide $ariety of crops includingwheat# mai3e# sugar beet# potatoes and all sorts of fruit and $egetables

    6here there is plenty of sunshine and hardly any frost *near the Mediterranean# for eample,# farmerscan grow fruit such as oranges and lemons# grapes and oli$es Bli$es contain oil which can besuee3ed out of the fruit and used in preparing food Grapes are suee3ed to get the 7uice# which canbe turned into wine Europe is famous for its $ery good wines# which are sold all o$er the world

    Mediterranean farmers also grow lots of other fruit and $egetables )omatoes# for eample# ripen well

    in the southern sunshine &ut $egetables need plenty of water# so farmers in hot# dry regions will oftenha$e to irrigate their crops )hat means gi$ing them water from ri$ers or from under the ground


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    Grass grows easily where there is enough rain# e$en if the soil is shallow or not $ery fertile ManyEuropean farmers (eep animals that eat grass < such as cows# sheep or goats )hey pro$ide mil(#meat and other useful products li(e wool and leather

    Many farmers also (eep pigs or chic(ens )hese animals can be raised almost anywhere because theycan be (ept indoors and gi$en specially prepared feed Chic(ens pro$ide not only meat but eggs too#

    and some farms produce thousands of eggs e$ery day

    %arms in Europe range from $ery big to $ery small Aome ha$e large fields < which ma(es it easy tohar$est crops using big machines Bthers# for eample in hilly areas# may ha$e small fields 6alls orhedgerows between fields help stop the wind and rain from carrying away soil# and they can be goodfor wildlife too

    Many city people li(e to spend wee(ends and holidays in the European countryside# en7oying thescenery# the peace and uiet and the fresh air 6e all need to do what we can to loo( after thecountryside and (eep it beautiful


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    T)e se'

    Europe has thousands and thousands of (ilometres of coastline# which nature has shaped in $ariousways )here are tall roc(y cliffs and beaches of sand or colourful pebbles formed by the sea as it

    pounds away at the roc(s# century after century

    !n @orway# glaciers ha$e car$ed the coast into steep-sided $alleys called f7ords !n some othercountries# the sea and wind pile up the sand into dunes )he highest dune in Europe *11F metres tall, isthe Dune du Iyla# near 8rcachon in %rance

    Many (inds of fish and other animals li$e in the sea around Europe"s coasts )hey pro$ide food forseabirds# and for marine mammals such as seals 6here ri$ers flow into the sea# floc(s of waderscome to feed# at low tide# on creatures that li$e in the mud


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    Pepe '+ t)e se'

    )he sea is important for people too )he Mediterranean was so important to the 9omans that theycalled itMare nostrum: Kour sea" Down through the centuries# Europeans ha$e sailed the world"soceans# disco$ered the other continents# eplored them# traded with them and made their homes there

    !n the chapter K8 7ourney through time" you can find out more about these great $oyages of disco$ery

    Cargo boats from around the world bring all (inds of goods *often pac(ed in containers, to Europe"sbusy ports 5ere they are unloaded on to trains# lorries and barges )hen the ships load up with goodsthat ha$e been produced here and which are going to be sold on other continents

    Aome of the world"s finest ships ha$e been built in Europe )hey include =ueen Mary 2 < one of thebiggest passenger liners in the world Ahe made her first transatlantic $oyage in Lanuary 200

    Europe"s seaside resorts are great places for a holiday ou can en7oy all (inds of water sports# fromsurfing and boating to waters(iing and scuba di$ing Br you can 7ust rela < sunbathing on the beachand cooling off in the sea


    %ishing has always been important for people in Europe 6hole towns ha$e grown up around fishingharbours# and thousands of people earn their li$ing by catching and selling fish or doing things for thefishermen and their families

    Modern fishing boats# such as factory trawlers# can catch huge numbers of fish )o ma(e sure thatenough are left in the sea# European countries ha$e agreed rules about how many fish can be caughtand about using nets that let young fish escape

    8nother way to ma(e sure we ha$e enough fish is to farm them Bn the coasts of northern Europe#salmon are reared in large cages in the sea Ahellfish such as mussels# oysters and clams can be farmedin the same way


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    P"te%t*+( E#"pes %'sts

    Europe"s coasts and the sea are important to wildlife and to people Ao we need to loo( after them 6eha$e to pre$ent them from becoming polluted by waste from factories and towns Bil tan(erssometimes ha$e accidents# spilling huge amounts of oil into the sea )his can turn beaches blac( and

    (ill thousands of seabirds

    European countries are wor(ing together to try to pre$ent these things from happening again and toma(e sure that our coastline will remain beautiful for future generations to en7oy


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    A+%*e+t G"ee%e

    *roughly 2000 to 200 &C < &C means before the birth of Christ,

    !n Greece about 000 years ago# people began to build cities 8t first they were ruled by(ings ;ater# around 00 &C# the city of 8thens introduced Kdemocracy"

  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    T)e R&'+ E&p*"e

    *roughly 00 &C to 00 8D < 8D means after the birth of Christ,

    9ome started out as 7ust a $illage in !taly &ut the 9omans were $ery well

    organised# their army was $ery good at fighting and they gradually conuered allthe lands around the Mediterranean E$entually the 9oman empire stretched all theway from northern England to the Aahara Desert and from the 8tlantic to 8sia

    He"e '"e s&e 1 t)e t)*+(s t)e R&'+s ('0e #s:

    good# straight roads connecting all parts of the empire beautiful houses with courtyards and mosaic tiled floors strong bridges and aueducts *for carrying water long distances,

    round-topped arches

  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    *in a separate leaflet 8'- pages insert in the middle,

    7"t6 1's 1'%es A t ;

    Many of the world"s great artists# composers# entertainers# in$entors# scientists and sports people ha$ecome from Europe 6e mentioned some of them in earlier chapters 6e can"t possibly include all ofthem in this boo(# so here are 7ust 0 more names# in alphabetical order and from $arious Europeancountries

    )here is a blan( space at the end for your own personal choice !t could be someone famous from yourown country# or your fa$ourite European sports team or pop group 6hy not find a picture of them andstic( it into the blan( space# along with a few facts about them

    N'&e C#+t"6 $)'t t)e6 *

    8bba Aweden Iop group: their songs were big hitsaround the world in the 1+F0s and

    ha$e remained so# inspiring thefamous musical and film hitsMamma Mia

    8gatha Christie .nited Jingdom 6riter: Ahe is best remembered forher detecti$e no$els# which ha$egi$en her the title K=ueen of Crime"and made her one of the mostimportant and inno$ati$e writers inthe genre

    8(i JaurismH(i %inland %ilm director: his most famous film'$e Man 1it$out 2 3ast wasnominated for an Bscar and won anaward at the Cannes %ilm %esti$alin 2002

    8lbert Einstein Germany Acientist: in 1+0 he disco$eredKrelati$ity" < in other words# howmatter# energy and time are allrelated to each other

    8nne %ran( )he @etherlands 6riter: she is one of the mostrenowned Lewish $ictims of the5olocaust 5er diary has becomeone of the world"s most widely read

    boo(s8ntonio i$aldi !taly Composer: he wrote many pieces#

    including '$e 4our 5easons *1F2,

    8strid ;indgren Aweden 6riter: she wrote a number offamous children"s boo(s including3ippi %ongsto6(ing 5er boo(sha$e been translated into numerouslanguages and ha$e sold o$er 1million copies worldwide

    Carmen Jass Estonia %ashion model: she has featured onthe co$er of ogue maga3ine and

    posed in campaigns for brands suchas Chanel and Gucci

    Christo &ulgaria 8rtist: famous for wrappingbuildings# monuments and e$entrees# in fabrics# as he did with the

    German parliament in 1++Dun Jarm Isaila Malta Ioet: he eplored the history of


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    Malta in poetry to confirm itscultural and national identity his$erses later became the lyrics of thenational anthem

    %ran3 ;is3t 5ungary Composer: he wrote some of theworld"s most difficult piano music#

    such as the 'rans6endenta# 5tudies%rydery( Chopin Ioland Composer and pianist: he wrote

    many piano pieces including hisfamous7o6turnes

    Gabrielle KCoco" Chanel %rance %ashion designer: her inno$ati$ewomen"s clothing made her animportant figure in 20th centuryfashion

    George Michael Cyprus !nternational pop star: he rose tofame with hits such as %ast8$ristmas and has sold o$er 0million singles

    Georges 9emi *5ergN, &elgium Comic boo( writer: most famousfor his comic strip '$e 2d*entureso9 'intin# which he wrote from1+2+ until his death in 1+?

    5ans Christian 8ndersen Denmar( 6riter: his mar$ellous fairy tales< such as '$e :g# Du6(#ing and'$e %itt#e Mermaid < ha$edelighted generations of childrenaround the world

    5elena 9ubinstein Ioland &usinesswoman: she founded the5elena 9ubinstein cosmeticcompany# which made her one ofthe richest and most successfulwomen of her time

    5omer Greece Ioet: a legendary ancient Gree(poet# traditionally said to be theauthor of the epic poems '$e ;#iadand '$e

  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    scientist# in$entor and philosopher:he painted the famous portrait ofthe Mona %isa and designed thefirst helicopter model as early as1+?

    ;y((e ;i Aweden Ainger: she released her first album

    in 200 and uic(ly rose tointernational fame# collaboratingwith stars such as Jings of ;eonand Janye 6est

    Marie Curie *MariaA(lodows(a,

    Ioland Acientist: with her husband Iierreshe disco$ered radium < aradioacti$e metal )hey wereawarded the @obel Iri3e forIhysics in 1+0?

    Marlene Dietrich Germany 8ctress: she starred in many films#including the original $ersion of2round t$e 1or#d in => Das*1+',

    MC Aolaar %rance 9apper: he is one of the mostinternationally popular andinfluential %rench rappers

    Mi(alo7us JonstantinasQiurlionis

    ;ithuania Iainter and composer: one of;ithuania"s most famous artists# hecomposed 20 pieces of music and

    produced ?00 [email protected] ComRneci 9omania 8thlete: the first person e$er to

    score full mar(s *10 out of 10, forgymnastics at the Blympic Gamesin 1+F'

    Iablo Iicasso Apain 8rtist: famous for his paintings inthe KCubist" style

    IenNlope Cru3 Apain 8ctress: she has starred in manyinternational bo office hits andwor(ed with famous directors suchas 6oody 8llen and Iedro8lmodS$ar

    9obert Achuman ;uembourg Iolitician: although he was bornnear ;uembourg# he went on to

    become Irime Minister of %rance5e is widely considered to be theKfather of Europe" )he AchumanDeclaration was made on + May1+0 and to this day + May is

    designated KEurope Day"Ttefan &aniU Alo$a(ia !n$entor: he in$ented the parachutein 1+1?

    Ateffi Graf Germany )ennis player: she is a formernumber one and the only player toha$e won all four Grand Alamsingles tournaments at least fourtimes each

    .2 !reland 9oc( band: their songs ha$e beenbig hits around the world since1+0

    Vcla$ 5a$el C3ech 9epublic Ilaywright# politician: formerdissident playwright who criticised


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    the Communist regime and whowas nominated for the @obel IeaceIri3e in 200? 5e was the lastIresident of C3echoslo$a(ia andthe first Iresident of the C3ech9epublic

    asco da Gama Iortugal Eplorer: one of the mostsuccessful eplorers during theEuropean 8ge of Disco$ery# hecommanded the first ships to saildirectly from Europe to !ndia

    i$ienne 6estwood .nited Jingdom %ashion designer: she brought pun(and new wa$e fashion into themainstream in the 1+F0s andcontinues to be an important playerin the fashion world today

    6olfgang 8madeus Mo3art 8ustria Musician: a composer of classicalmusic# Mo3art produced o$er '00wor(s and wrote his first opera in

    1FF0# when he was 7ust 1 yearsold

    My choice:


  • 8/13/2019 Uniunea Europeana - date generale


    T)e Re+'*ss'+%e

    *roughly 1?00 to 1'00 8D,

    During the Middle 8ges# most people could not read or write and they (new only what they learnt inchurch Bnly monasteries and uni$ersities had copies of the boo(s the ancient Gree(s and 9omans hadwritten &ut in the 1?00s and 100s# students began redisco$ering the ancient boo(s )hey wereama3ed at the great ideas and (nowledge they found there and the news began to spread

    6ealthy and educated people# for eample in %lorence *!taly,# became $ery interested )hey couldafford to buy boo(s < especially once printing was in$ented in Europe *1, < and they fell in lo$ewith ancient Greece and 9ome )hey had their homes modelled on 9oman palaces# and they paidtalented artists and sculptors to decorate them with scenes from Gree( and 9oman stories# and withstatues of gods# heroes and emperors

    !t was as if a lost world of beauty and wisdom had been reborn )hat is why we call this period the

    K9enaissance" *meaning Krebirth", !t ga$e the world:

    great painters and sculptors such as Michelangelo and &otticelli talented architects li(e &runelleschi the ama3ing in$entor and artist ;eonardo da inci great thin(ers such as )homas More# Erasmus and Montaigne scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo *who disco$ered that the Earth and other planets

    mo$e around the sun, beautiful buildings such as the castles in the ;oire $alley a new interest in what human beings can achie$e

    T)e I+#st"*' Re0#t*+ *roughly 1F0 to 10 8D,

    8 different (ind of Kre$olution" started in Europe about 20 years ago < in the world of Kindustry" !tall began with an energy crisis %or thousands of years# people had been burning wood and charcoal&ut now# parts of Europe were running out of forests4 6hat else could we use as fuel

    )he answer was coal )here was plenty of it in Europe# and miners began digging for it Coal poweredthe newly in$ented steam engines !t could also be roasted and turned into Kco(e"# which is a muchcleaner fuel < ideal for ma(ing iron and steel

    8bout 10 years ago# an Englishman called 5enry &essemer in$ented a Kblast furnace" that couldproduce large amounts of steel uite cheaply Aoon Europe was producing huge uantities of it# and itchanged the world4 Cheap steel made it possible to build s(yscrapers# huge bridges# ocean liners# cars#fridges> Iowerful guns and bombs too


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    G"e't *s%0e"*es '+ +e4 *e's

    *roughly 100 to 1+00 8D,

    8t the time of the 9enaissance# trade with distant lands was becoming $ery important for Europeanmerchants %or eample# they were selling goods in !ndia and bringing bac( $aluable spices and

    precious stones &ut tra$elling o$erland was difficult and too( a long time# so the merchants wanted toreach !ndia by sea )he problem was# 8frica was in the way < and it is $ery big4

    5owe$er# if the world really was round *as people were beginning to belie$e,# European ships ought tobe able to reach !ndia by sailing west Ao# in 1+2# Christopher Columbus and his sailors set out fromApain and crossed the 8tlantic &ut instead of reaching !ndia they disco$ered the &ahamas *islands inthe Caribbean Aea# near the coast of 8merica,

    Bther eplorers soon followed !n 1+FW+# asco da Gama < a Iortuguese na$al officer < was thefirst European to reach !ndia by sailing around 8frica !n 11+# another Iortuguese eplorer