7.Chuong1. Tong Quan

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Khao sat thanh phan hoa hoc cay Son cuc hai hoa

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  • Wedelia biflora (L.) DC Tng quan

    HV: Nguyn Th Hoi Thu 1

    Chng 1. TNG QUAN 1.1. C TNH THC VT

    Trong cc cy h Cc (Asteraceae), gm 70 loi cy thuc chi Wedelia, trong mt s cy c bit n Vit Nam [1, 4, 5, 6] nh:

    Sn cc hai hoa - Wedelia biflora (L.) DC. Sn cc nhm - Wedelia urticaefolia (Bl.) DC. Sn cc b - Wedelia chinensis (Osb.) Merr. Sn cc ba thy - Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch. Si t - Wedelia calendulacea L. L a cc - Wedelia prostrata (H. & A.) Hemls.

    1.1.1. Cy sn cc hai hoa - Wedelia biflora (L.) DC. (Hnh 1.1a) Cy Sn cc hai hoa c tn khoa hc l Wedelia biflora (L.) DC. [1, 5]. Sn cc hai hoa cn c gi l cc mt tri, rau mui, hi cc. Dng cy bi, cao 1-2m. Thn c lng cng, tha. L c phin xoan xoan

    tam gic, c t lng nhm nhm. Hoa u c c hay tng cp, trn cng di, hoa hnh mi vng, ci, 5-10, gia hoa c l hoa l vy. B qu khng c lng mo, cao 4mm (hnh 1.1b).

    L li tiu, hoa x mnh. Cy mc n , Nam Trung Quc, Vit Nam, Thi Lan, Malaixia,

    Innxia, Philippin, nc ta cy sn cc hai hoa c trng lm cnh trong cc cng vin thnh ph H Ch Minh, Lt 1.1.2. Sn cc nhm - Wedelia urticaefolia (Bl.) DC. (Hnh 1.2)

    Sn cc nhm c tn khoa hc l Wedelia urticaefolia (Bl.) DC. [1, 5]. Sn cc nhm l dng cy c a nin ng. Thn c lng nm, nhm. L c

    phin xoan nhn, di 6-12cm. Hoa u khng hay c cng, c vy, hoa hnh ba mi vng, ci; hoa gia hnh ng, lng phi. B qu dp, cao 1mm, khng lng mo.

    Phn b n , Trung Quc, Vit Nam, Lo, Thi Lan, Innxia. nc ta, cy mc hoang rt nhiu hu ht cc tnh t Lo Cai, Cao Bng n Ninh Thun, Lm ng

  • Wedelia biflora (L.) DC Tng quan

    HV: Nguyn Th Hoi Thu 2

    1.1.3. Sn cc b - Wedelia chinensis (Osb.) Merr. (Hnh 1.3) Sn cc b c tn khoa hc l Wedelia chinensis (Osb.) Merr. [1]. Sn cc b cn c gi l sn cc Trung Quc. Dng cy c a nin b t, thn c lng phn. L c phin hp di 5-8 cm, rng 1 cm, c lng nhm, ba c rng nhn, tha. Hoa u c c trn cng di cht nhnh, rng 1,5 cm, hnh mi vng, hoa trong hnh ng, lng phi. B qu c a mng, c rng th lng mo. Thng phn b i ct k bin Vng Tu, Hu, Qui Nhn, 1.1.4. Sn cc ba thy - Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch. (Hnh 1.4) Sn cc ba thy c tn khoa hc l Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch.

    Sn cc ba thy cn c tn l cc b. Cy sn cc ba thy l loi tho mc sng lu nm, c th mc thng cao

    n 45 cm, hoc b lan n 1,8 m. Cy thng mc thnh tng mng, dy c che kn mt t. Thn b, r mc ti cc t, di khong 1-3 dm. L dy, di khong 4-9 cm, rng 2-5 cm c rng ca hai bn thy l, c lng cng v th c hai mt. Hoa mu vng ti, nhiu cnh thnh tng, cung hoa di 3-10 cm, tng bao c dng chung, u hoa thng c khong 8-13 hoa tia, a trng hoa di 4-5 mm, b qu c nt sn.

    Cy c tm thy nhiu Trung M, Ty Phi, Hawai, Nam Florida, Vit Nam, cy mc hoang nhiu ni v c dng rng ri lm cy king. 1.1.5. Wedelia paludosa DC. (Hnh 1.5)

    Cha thy c ti liu no cp n. 1.1.6. Si t - Wedelia calendulacea (L.) Less (Hnh 1.6) Si t c tn khoa hc l Wedelia calendulacea (L.) Less. [6]. Si t cn c gi l hng trm, ng ni, cc nhp, cc gip, bnh k cc. Si t l mt loi c sng dai, mc lan b, ch thn mc ti u, r lan ti , ni t tt c th cao 0,5m. Thn mu xanh, c lng trng, cng, nh. L gn nh khng cung, mc i, hnh bu dc thon di, hai u nhn, di 15-50 mm, rng 25 mm, c lng nh cng hai mt, mp c 1-3 rng ca nng. Cm hoa hnh

  • Wedelia biflora (L.) DC Tng quan

    HV: Nguyn Th Hoi Thu 3

    u, cung hoa di, vt qua cc nhnh l, cnh hoa mu vng ti. Qu b khng c lng, u thu hp li, tn cng mang mt vng c rng. Thng mc hoang nhiu tnh min bc, nhng ni m mt. 1.1.7. L a cc - Wedelia prostrata (H. & A.) Hemls (Hnh 1.7) L a cc c tn khoa hc l Wedelia prostrata (H. & A.) Hemls. [6]. L a cc cn c tn gi l bnh k cc.

    Cy dng c a nin, b t, thn c lng phn. L c lng nhm tha, phin di 1-2 cm, ba c t rng. Hoa u c c, hnh mi vng, c vy gia cc hoa, hoa hnh ng, lng phi. B qu cao 1 mm, u c lng mn, khng lng mo. Thng c dng lm thuc mc tc, tr nhc u.

    Phn b n , Trung Quc, Vit Nam, Lo, Thi Lan, Innxia. nc ta, cy mc hoang nhiu ni. Thng phn b vng i ct da bin Hu, Qui Nhn, Nha Trang, Vng Tu.

  • Wedelia biflora (L.) DC Tng quan

    HV: Nguyn Th Hoi Thu 4

    Hnh 1.1a: Ton cy Sn cc hai hoa - Wedelia biflora (L.) DC.

    Hnh 1.1b: L, hoa, ht ca Wedelia biflora (L.) DC

  • Wedelia biflora (L.) DC Tng quan

    HV: Nguyn Th Hoi Thu 5

    Hnh 1.2: Wedelia urticaefolia (Bl) DC. Hnh 1.3: Wedelia chinensis (Osb.) Merr.

    Hnh 1.4: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch Hnh 1.5: Wedelia paludosa DC.

    Hnh 1.6: Wedelia calendulacea (L.) Less Hnh 1.7: Wedelia prostrata (H. & A.) Hemls

  • Wedelia biflora (L.) DC Tng quan

    HV: Nguyn Th Hoi Thu 6

    1.2. THNH PHN HA HC 1.2.1. Cy sn cc hai hoa - Wedelia biflora (L.) DC.

    Nm 1993, Miles D. Howard [20] c lp t cao diclorometan ca l kh Wedelia biflora c bn hp cht: veratrylidenehydrazid (59); 3,3'-di-O-metylquercetin (47); 2,7,4-trihydroxy-5,3-dimetoxyisoflavon (51) v 7,3-di-O-

    metyl quercetin (48).

    Nm 2005, Nguyn Thanh Hong v cng s [3] c lp t l cy Wedelia biflora c hai hp cht l: -amyrin acetat (36) v acid kaur-16-en-19-oic (28) v c lp t hoa cy Wedelia biflora c hai hp cht l: 3-hexanoyloxyolean-12-en-28-ol (38) v acid 3-hexanoyloxyolean-12-en-28-oic (39). 1.2.2. Cy sn cc nhm - Wedelia urticaefolia (Bl.) DC. Nm 2007, Nguyn Thanh Hong v cng s [2, 23] c lp c -amyrin (35); 3-acetoxy--amyrin (36), 3-O-tetradecanoylurs-12-en-16-ol (37); phytol (15) v acid kaur-16-en-19-oic (28) t hoa ca cy Wedelia urticaefolia. 1.2.3. Cy sn cc b - Wedelia chinensis (Osb.) Merr.

    Nm 1986, Yang Ling Ling [34] c lp t Wedelia chinensis c acid kaur-16-en-19-oic (28) v stigmasterol glucosid (46).

    Nm 2002, Apers Sandra v cng s [8] c lp t cy thuc Wedelia chinensis Trung Quc c acid 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic (57); acid 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic (56); acid 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic v ,3,4-trihydroxyphenyletyl-O-[-apiofuranosyl-(14)--rhamnopyranosyl-(13)]-(4-O-caffeoyl)--glucopyranosid hay wedelosin (58); cng lc vi ba flavonoid glycosid l: 3-O--glucopyranosylquercetin (54); 3-O--apiofuranosyl-(1-2)--glucopyranosylkaempferol (53) v astragalin hay 3-O--glucopyranosylkaempferol (52).

    1.2.4. Cy sn cc ba thy - Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch. Nm 2000, Koheil M. A. v cng s [19] kho st thnh phn tinh du ca hoa

    Wedelia trilobata bng GC-MS. Kt qu cho thy thnh phn ca tinh du gm 48 cht trong thnh phn chnh l -phellandren (25,65%); limonen (8,93%); -terpinen (5,90%); trans--caryophyllen (4,83%) v -pinen (4,72%).

  • Wedelia biflora (L.) DC Tng quan

    HV: Nguyn Th Hoi Thu 7

    Nm 2004, Zhang Yuhu [35] c lp c 6 sesquiterpen t cy Wedelia trilobata: trilobolid-6-O-isobutyrat hay wedeliatrilolactone A (8); 1-acetoxy-4,9-dihydroxy-6-isobutyroxyprostatolid (10); hn hp gm hai hp cht l 1,9-diacetyloxy-4-hydroxy-6-isobutyryloxyprostatolid hay wedeliatrilolactone B (9) v 1,9-diacetyloxy-4-hydroxy-6-metacryloxyprostatolid (12); 1,4-dihydroxy-6-isobutyryloxy-9-tigloyloxyprostatolid (13) v 9-angeloyloxy-1,4-dihydroxy-6- isobutyryloxyprostatolid (14).

    Nm 2005, Nirmal v cng s [25] kho st thnh phn ha hc tinh du ca l Wedelia trilobata bng GC-MS. Kt qu cho thy tinh du cha 14 hp cht, trong -pinen; germacren D v d-limonen chim n 85,52%.

    Nm 2006, Nguyn Thanh Hong v cng s [24] c lp t l ca Wedelia trilobata c friedelan-3-ol (34); -amyrin acetat (36) v acid 3-tigloyloxykaur-16-en-19-oic (25).

    1.2.5. Wedelia paludosa DC.

    Nm 1987, Roque Nidia F. [28] c lp t r Wedelia paludosa c: metyl 9-hydroxykaur-16-en-19-oat (21); metyl kaur-16-en-19-oat (22); metyl 3-angeloyloxy-9-hydroxykaur-16-en-19-oat (18); metyl 3-angeloyloxykaur-16-en-19-oat (19); metyl 3-tigloyloxykaur-16-en-19-oat (20); metyl 3-cinamoyloxykaur-16-en-19-oat (23); metyl 3-cinamoyloxy-9-hydroxykaur-16-en-19-oat (24); mt labdan l (1R,2R,8aS,Z)-2,5,5,8a-tetrametyl-1-(3-metylpenta-2,4-dienyl)-decahydronaptalen-2-ol (15); mt secokauren lacton l (1R,5S,8R)-1,5-dimetyl-8-{2-[(1S,5R)-6-metylen-2-

    oxobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-1-yl]etyl}-6-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-7-on (17).

    Nm 2001, De Carvalho v cng s [12] c lp t hoa Wedelia paludosa c acid kaur-16-en-19-oic (28); acid kaur-9(11),16-dien-19-oic (27); acid 3-O-hexadecanoylolean-12-en-28-oic (40); acid 3-O-pentadecanoylolean-12-en-28-oic (41); acid 3-O-tetradecanoylolean-12-en-28-oic (42); stigmasterol (45); hn hp 3-O--D-glycopyranosylsitosterol v 3-O--D-glucopyranosylstigmasterol (46).

    Nm 2003, Sartori M. R. K. v cng s [29] c lp t hoa Wedelia paludosa c hai hp cht l acid kaur-16-en-19-oic (28) v luteolin (49).

  • Wedelia biflora (L.) DC Tng quan

    HV: Nguyn Th Hoi Thu 8

    Nm 2004, Cechinel Filho Valdir v cng s [11] c lp t cy Wedelia paludosa c stigmasterol (45), acid kaur-16-en-19-oic (28) v acid oleanolic v eudesmanolid (4).

    1.2.6. Si t - Wedelia calendulacea L. Nm 1991, Govindachari T. R. [16] c lp t l cy ti Wedelia

    calendulacea c -D-glucopyranosyl 3-[(O--D-xylopyranosyl)-(12)-(-D- glucuronopyranosyl)]olean-12-en-28-oat (43) v -D-glucopyranosyl 3-[(O--D-glucopyranosyl)-(12)-(-D-glucuronopyranosyl)]olean-12-en-28-oat hay ginsenosid Ro (44).

    Nm 1998, Nguyn Ngc Sng v cng s [22] c lp t l ti cy Wedelia calendulacea c mt sesquiterpen lacton l wedelolacton (6) v acid 5,6-dihydroxy-2-(2',4',6'-trihydroxyphenyl)benzofuran-3-carboxylic hay acid

    norwedelic (7).

    Nm 2003, Mottakin A. K. M. [21] v cng s c lp t Wedelia calendulacea c ba diterpen l: acid 3-tigloyloxykaur-16-en-19-oic (25); acid 3-angeloyloxykaur-16-en-19-oic (26) v acid kaur-16-en-19-oic (28). 1.2.7. L a cc - Wedelia prostrata (H. & A.) Hemls Nm 1993, Ragasa Consolacion Y. v cng s [27] c lp t cy Wedelia prostrata thu hi Philippines c 1-acetoxy-4,9-dihydroxy-6-metacryloxyprostatolid (11) v acid 3-cinamoyloxykaur-16-en-19-oic (32). Nm 2001, Farag Salwa F. [13] c lp t dch chit cloroform ca phn trn mt t ca cy Wedelia prostra