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Page 1: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Minggu 5-6

1. Menghuraikan pelan kerangka satu unit pengajaran

1. Menunjukkan kesinambungan

Analisis cara mengajar 1

Kerangka pelan pengajaran

1.Penulisan hasil pembelajaran2.Penentuan kaedah mengajar3.Penyediaan latihan pelajar dan pengelompokan 4.Pentaksiran5.Pemulihan dan pengukuhan

Page 2: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

8 Komponen utama dalam merekabentuk pengajaran UPSI 2009 (adaptasi Tyler)

1. Kenal pelajar anda, kesediaan mereka, dan konteks pembelajaran

5. Pilih kaedah & teknik pengajaran &6. Latihan murid

7. Pilih alat bantu p & p : buku, modul, VCD, CD dan sebagainya yg sesuai

3. Objektif (hasil pembelajaran yang sesuai

4. Buat susunan unit-unit p& p secara ‘sequential’- guna Jadual Penentuan Kandungan (JPK)

2. Guru kuasai ‘content’ topik: buat analisis (i)Pengetahuan(ii)Kemahiran

8. Penilaian ( alat dan kaedah penilaian yang sah dan boleh dipercayai

Page 3: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

1. Membuat analisis keperluan dan kesediaan murid dalam konteks pembelajaran yang akan dilaksanakan

2. Membuat analisis kandungan kurikulum : kandungan topik yang hendak di ajar, dari segi ‘pengetahuan’ di dalamnya: fakta, prosedur, klasifikasi, prinsip dan teori, dan ‘kemahiran’ seperti membuat eksperimen, mencari maklumat dalam internet, menulis laporan dan sebagainya.

3. Berdasarkan (1) dan (2) diatas guru menentukan objektif pengajaran iaitu tahap hasil pembelajaran yang realistik yang perlu dicapai oleh murid.

4. Menyusun turutan (sequence) unit-unit pengajaran supaya beransur maju, bersambungan dan berkembang

5. Memilih dan mengguna kombinasi pendekatan, kaedah, dan teknik pengajaran yang sesuai dengan kesediaan murid dan sifat isi kandungan topik berkenaan

6. Membina, memilih dan mengguna alat dan media bantu pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang sesuai untuk memudahkan proses pengajaran pembelajaran

7. Menyedia latihan yang sesuai dan mencukupi untuk semua murid supaya pembelajaran mereka berkesan dan mencapai Masteri

Page 4: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Jadual Penentu Kandungan

Rancangan Pengajaran Harian

Aras taksonomi Bloom

Pengetahuan Kefahaman Aplikasi Analisis Sintesis Penilaian

Topik 1 RPH 1 X X

Topik 1 RPH 2 X

Topik 6Topik 7

RPH 7 X X

Topik 7 RPH 8 X X

Page 5: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Rancangan Pengajaran Harian

Aras taksonomi Bloom

Pengetahuan Kefahaman Aplikasi Analisis Sintesis Penilaian

RPH 1 Fotosintesis MekanismeFotosintesis

RPH 2 Meningkatkan kadar fotosintesi

RPH 7 Punca Fotosintesi tidak cekap

RPH 8 Peningkatan kadar fotosintesis. Pengkomersilan sistem fotosintesis

Page 6: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Contoh konsep fotosintesis dalam pelbagai arasSebelum tamat pengajaran, murid dapat:

1. Menyatkan fotosintesis? – Apakah yg dimaksudkan dengan fotosintesis

2. Menerangkan mekanisma fotosintesis.- Terangkan mekanisma fotosintesis

3. Mengaplikasikan faktor-faktor yang boleh meningkatkan kadar fotosintesis – (diberi situasi) untuk menangani pelbagai masalah persekitaran, bagaimanakah meningkatkan kadar fotosintesis? Prinsip ‘faktor2 yang mempengaruhi kadar fotosintesis’

Page 7: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Contoh konsep fotosintesis dalam pelbagai arasSebelum tamat pengajaran, murid dapat:

4. Mengenalpasti punca tumbuhan tidak berfotosintesis – ( Diberi situasi) kenalpasti punca tumbuhan tidak berfotosintesis dengan cekap.

5. Mencadangkan satu sistem untuk mengatasi masalah cuaca untuk meningkatkan fotosintesis – cadangkan satu sistem untuk mengatasi masalah cuaca untuk meningkatkan fotosintesi

6. Menjustifikasi bagaimana sistem cadangan mereka patut dikomersialkan – Bagi sistem yang anda cadangkan, justifikasi / terangkan bagaimana kenapa ia patut dikomersialkan

Page 8: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

• Bagi satu isi pelajaran tertentu, kenalpasti profil akhir pelajar (hasil akhir boleh pamerkan) yang menunjukkan mereka :

1. Kognitif- Berpengetahuan dalam…. 2. Psikomotor- Berkemahiran dalam…. 3. Afektif- Mempunyai sikap….

Susun atur pelan perancangan hingga ke hasil akhir dalam JPK dan boleh diuji dengan JPU

Page 9: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Jadual Penentu Ujian

Page 10: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Instructional events

Pengalaman pembelajaranAktiviti pembelajaran

Page 11: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Hunter’s Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)

1. Set induksi (Anticipatory set or Set Introduction)

2. Maklumkan objektif pembelajaran (Standards)

3. Input pengajaran (Input)

4. Permodelan (Modeling)

5. Semak kefahaman murid (Checking for Understanding)

6. Pantau dan ubah suai (Monitoring)

7. Praktis terbimbing (Guided practice)

8. Praktis bertempoh (Independent practice)

9. Penutup (Closure)

Page 12: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Hunter’s Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)

1. Set Induksi

Sometimes called a ‘hook’ to grab the student’s attention : actions and statements by the teacher to relate the experience of the students to the objectives of the lessons. To put students into a receptive frame of mind, to focus student attention on the lesson, to create an organizing famework for the ideas, principles or information that is follow (c.f, the teaching strategy called “ advanced organizers”.)

To extend the understanding and the application of abstract ideas through the use of the example or analogy.. Used any time a different activity or new concept is to be introduced.

2. Maklumkan

objektif

pembelajaran

Before the lesson is prepared, the teacher should have a clear idea of what the lesson outcomes are. What specifically, should the stydent be able to do, understand, care about as a result of the teaching. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Mager’s Educational Objectives.

Page 13: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Hunter’s Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)

3. Input

pengajaran

The teacher provides the information needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill through lecture, film, tape, video, pictures, ect

4. Permodelan The teacher provides the information needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill through lecture, film, tape, video, pictures, ect

Page 14: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

5. Semak

kefahaman

murid

Determination of whether students have “ got it” before proceeding. It is essential that practice doing it right so the teacher must know that students understand before proceeding to practice. If there is any doubt that the class has not understood, the concept / skill should be retaught before practice begins. Usually through questioning

6. Pantau dan

ubah suai

If required, reteach

7. Praktis

terbimbing

An opportunity for each student to demonstrate grasp of new learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teacher’s direct supervision. The teacher moves around the room to determine the level of mastery and to provide individual remediation as needeed. Guided practice ( in class “ seat work”). With the teacher circulating (e.g, “ praise, prompt and leave”). Monitor students work, providing corrective feedback as necessary and assess performance of the group in determining whether the class is ready for the next instruction. Additional time for those whose aptitude calls for adorgen learning period can be provided by giving “extra credit” assigment supplementary.

Page 15: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Hunter’s Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)

8. Praktis

bertempoh

Once pupils have mastered the content or skill, it is time to provide for reinforcement practice. It is provided on a repeating schedule so that the learning is not forgotten. It may be class formative testing, homework or individual work in class. It can be utilized as an element in a subsequent project. It should provide for decontextualization : enough different contexts so that the skill / concept may be applied to any relevant situation .. Not only the context in which it was originally learned. The failure to do this is responsible for most student failure to be able to apply something learned. Independent practice ( additional class time or homework) begins when students have achieved an 85 to 90% accuracy level. To insure retention and develop fluency, students practice on their own without assistance and with delayed fluency, students practice on their without assistance and with delayed feedback (eg, comments on graded paper). Five or more brief practice activities distributed over a month or more may be required to “ fix” the new concept / skill.

Page 16: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Hunter’s Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)

9. Penutup Penutup – Those actions or statements by a teacher that are designed to bring a lesson to bring a lesson presentation to an appropriate conclusion. Used to help students bring things together in their own minds, to make sense out of what has just been taught. “ Any questions? No. OK, let’s move on” is not closure. Closure is used : to cue students to the fact that they have arrived at an important point in the lesson or the end of a lesson, to help organize students learning, to help form a coherent picture, to consolidate, eliminate confusion and frustration, etc,

To reinforce the major points to be learned.. To help establish the network of thought relationships that provide a number of possiblities for cues for retrieval. Closure is the act of reviewing and clarifiying the key points of a lesson, tying them together into a coherent whole and ensuring their utility in application by securing them in the student’s conceptual network

Page 17: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Gagne’s Instructional Events Model (1988)

1. Tarik perhatian murid

2. Maklumkan objektif pembelajaran

3. Imbas kembali apa yang telah dipelajari

4. Penyampaian yang jelas

5. Bimbing pembelajaran

6. Dapatkan / galakan respon

7. Beri maklumbalas

8. Tafsir prestasi

9. Susun atur praktis untuk tingkatkan ingat kembali dan pemindahan ke situasi lain.

Page 18: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Rosenshine & Stevens Intructional Functions Model (1986)

1. Semak pemahaman murid (semak kerja yang diberi sebelum ini. Ajar semula jika perlu)

2. Ajar konten baru (beri kerangka, hurai dengan terperinci, kaitkan konten baru dengan konten yang murid telah pelajari)

3. Praktis murid (murid diberi tugasan untuk praktis, bersoal jawab, beri maklum balas, pantau praktis, semak pemahaman murid)

4. Maklumbalas / pembetulan ( maklum balas berterusan, perhatikan ralat-ralat yang kerap dilakukan oleh murid, terangkan semula jika perlu)

5. Praktis bebas (pantau)

6. Semak semula pemahaman (semak secara berkala-ajar semula jika perlu)

Page 19: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Prior KnowledgeWhat’s the big deal?

It’s all about memory files….Cataloging and retrieving

Page 20: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Way to Gather Prior KnowledgeK-W-LBrainstormingAnticipation GuidesAgree/Disagree StatementsDumpingMindstorms

Page 21: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Fleksibiliti pengelompokan

Saling berubah-ubah mengikut kesesuaian

Page 22: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Grouping Strategies

Young: student choice, last name, food preferences, birthday, color of clothes

Older: goals, jobs, location, experience, familiarity with task

Page 23: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Pengelompokan/grouping

Keseluruhan kelasPasukanKumpulan kecilBerdua/bertigaIndividuSatu mentor satu menteeSistem stesyen dengan kumpulan kecil

Page 24: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Flexible Grouping

Homogenous/ Ability Individualized or - Cluster students of similar Independent Study

abilities, level, learning style, or -Self paced learning interest. - Teaches time management and - Usually based on some type of responsibility pre-assessment - Good for remediation or extensions

Heterogeneous Groups Whole Class- Different abilities, level or - Efficient way to present new interest content- Good for promoting creative -Use for initial instruction thinking

Page 25: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Differentiation Blends Several Types of Instruction

Whole-class instructionIndividual instructionFlexible grouping Cooperative/ collaborative learning

Page 26: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Pelajar praktis, proses, mengaplikasikan dalamKumpulan kecil mengikut keperluan, gaya

Belajar,

The football metaphor comes from the way we think about the Lesson’s sequence : a narrrow. Whole class experience in the

beginning, then narrowing it back as we re-gather tp process what we’ve learned

Page 27: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Aras Hasil Pembelajaran Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia

ARAS 1Aras 1 adalah aras yang asas dan perlu dikuasai oleh semua

murid. Pada aras ini murid perlu menguasai beberapa konsep asas.

Ini dapat ditunjukkan melalui objektif perlakuan ternyata murid seperti mengenal pasti, menyenaraikan, menyatakan, menamakan dan memadankan.

Page 28: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Aras Hasil Pembelajaran PPK

Aras 2Aras 2 pula adalah aras yang lebih tinggi daripada Aras 1

dalam urutan pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Pada aras ini murid boleh menguasai beberapa perlakuan ternyata seperti menerangkan, menjelaskan, menghuraikan dan membandingkan.

Page 29: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Aras Hasil Pembelajaran PPK

Aras 3Aras 3 pula adalah aras yang tertinggi dalam urutan pengajaran

dan pembelajaran. Pada aras ini, murid mampu menguasai beberapa lagi perlakuan ternyata pada tahap yang lebih tinggi seperti merumus, membandingkan dan membezakan, menganalisis dan mencadangkan.

Page 30: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Ada kemungkinan tidak semua murid berkemampuan menguasai aras 2 dan 3. walau bagaimanapun guru hendaklah meneruskan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran hingga ke aras 3 untuk semua murid.

Tidak semua hasil pembelajaran mengandungi semua aras 1, 2 dan 3. Sebaliknya terdapat juga sebahagian hasil pembelajaran yang hanya setakat aras 2 sahaja. Ini kerana pada aras 2 tersebut murid telah pun dapat menguasai sepenuhnya objektif pembelajaran yang hendak disampaikan.

Nilai-nilai murni dan unsur-unsur patriotisme harus diterapkan dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran.

Page 31: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Kategori objektif

1. Domain Kognitif-aspek pengetahuan.

Berbeza mengikut kompleksnya

2. Domain Afektif- sikap perasaan, emosi.

Berbeza mengikut aras penghayatan

3. Domain Psikomotor-perkembangan kemahiran motor-berbeza mengikut kepakaran pelaksanaannya.

Page 32: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Taksonomi Pembelajaran

Page 33: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Types (domains) of learning objectives

Cognitive objectives

- Describe the knowledge that learners are to acquire

• Affective objectives

- Describe the attitudes, feeling and dispositions that learners

are expected to develop

• Psychomotor objectives

- Relate to the manipulative and motor skills that learners are

to master

Page 34: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Taxonomy / taksonomi

Principles of classificationThe study of the rules and practice of classifying

Page 35: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Domain Kognitif (Bloom)1. Pengetahuan

2. Kefahaman

3. Aplikasi

4. Analisis

5. Sintesis

6. Penilaian

( Moore menggabungkan sintesis dan penilaian menjadi aras crection)

Page 36: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Aras domain kognitif

Reseach over the last 40 years has confirmed the taxonomy as a hierarchy, with the exercise the last two levels. It is uncertain whether synthesis and evaluation and the same level of difficulty but use different cognitive processes.

Pemikiran kreatif Pemikiran kritis

Sintesis Penilaian

Analisis

Aplikasi

Kefahaman

Pengetahuan

Page 37: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Original Terms ANDERSON ET AL New TermsEvaluation •CreatingSynthesis •EvaluatingAnalysis •AnalysingApplication •Comprehension • Understanding

Knowledge • Remembering

Page 38: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Aras Huraian deskriptif K/Kerja Hasil Pembelajaran

Pengetahuan remember and recall factual information

At the knowledge level, the student can recognizes, defines or recall specific information. This might include remembering important names, dates, capitals or even the equation for a formula

Definisi,

nyatakan, senaraikan

Senaraikan aras domain kognitif

Kefahaman demonstrate understanding of ideas, concepts

The level targets whether students understand content. Ways of demonstrating comprehension include summarizing, translating or providing examples of a concept

Huraikan

terangkan

Terangkan tujuan domain kognitif

Aplikasi

apply comprehension to unfamiliar situations

The application level focuses on whether students can use information to solve problems.Eg. Of application- level- goal include having students solve maths word and using pronounciation properly in written communication

Kira, guna

selesaikan

Tulis hp bagi aras2 domain kognitif

Page 39: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Aras domain kognitif

Aras Huraian deskriptif K/kerja Hasil Pembelajaran

Analisis

Break down concepts into parts

This level involves asking students to break something down to reveal its organization and structure. Students perform analysis whwn they discuss why a short story works or when they identify the component parts of science experiment

Bandingkan hubungkaitkan

Bandingkan domain kognitif dan domain afektif

Sintesis

Transform, combine ideas to create something new

Students employ synthesis when they create a unique (for them). This might include writing a poem, painting a picture, creating a computer program

Reka, susun, hasilkan

Reka satu hp yang menggabungkan ketiga-tiga domian

Penilaian

Think critically about ang defend a position

In the highest level of the taxonomy, students judge the value or worth of something by comparing it to a pre-determined criteria.

Nilaikan, justifikasi

Nilaikan keberkesanan penulisan hp menggunakan taksonomi

Page 40: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Blooms Taxanomy of Learning1. Factual Knowledge : remember and recall factual information Define, List,

State, Label, Name, Describe

2. Comprehension : demonstrate understanding of ideas, concepts, Describe, Explain, Summarize, Interpret, Illuustrate

3. Application : apply comprehension to unfamiliar situations, Apply, Demonstrate, Use, Compute, Solve, Predict, Construct, Modify

4. Analysis : break down concepts into parts, Compare, Contrast, Categorize, Distinguish, Identity, Infer

5. Synthesis : transform, combine ideas to create something new, Develop , Create, Propose, Formulate, Design, Invent

6. Evaluation: think critically about and defend a position, Judge, Appraise, Recommend, Justify, Defend, Criticize, Evaluate

These levels expect deeper conceptual understanding

Page 41: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Understanding Levels of Thinking using :

SOLO TAXONOMY(after Biggs and Collis 1982)

Page 42: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi
Page 43: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

SOLO Taxonomy Structure of the observed learning outcome (Biggs 2003)

1. Prestructural

2. Unistructural

3. Multistructural

4. Relational

5. Extended abstract

Page 44: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

1 pre-structuralHere students are simply acquiring bits of unconnected information, which have

no organisation and make no sense

Page 45: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

What does it mean?Really there’s not much there.

For example:

Prestuctural

Page 46: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

2 Unistructural :Simple and obvious connections are made, but their significance is not

grasped.

Page 47: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

What does it mean?There’s one idea there.For example :

Define

Identify

Do Simple

Procedure

Unistructural

Page 48: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

3 MultistructuralA number of connections may be made,

but the meta-connections between them are missed, as their significance

for the whole.

Page 49: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

What does it mean?There are a number of ideas.For example :

Define

Describe

List

Do algorithm

Combine

Multistructural

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4 Relational levelThe student is now able to appreciate the significance of the parts in relation

to yhe whole.

Page 51: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

What does it mean?Compare/contrastExplain causesSequence There are a number of ideas and links are be made

between these ideasClassify For example :Part/wholeRelateAnalogyApplyFormulate questions

Relational

Page 52: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

5 At the extend abstract level, the student is making connections not only within the given

subject area,but also beyond it, able to generalise and transfer the prinsiples and ideas

underlying the specific instance.

Page 53: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

What does it mean?Evaluate

Theorise

Generalise There is a range of ideas which are linked

Predict together plus some knew or extend thinking is added

Create For example :

Hypothesise

Reflect

Page 54: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

so, How do they match up?

Page 55: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Aras Domain afektifAras Huraian deskriptif k/kerja Hasil pemb.

1.Receiving(menerima)

Sedar akan sesuatu ransangan di persekitaran

Dengar, hadir

Dengar penerangan berkaitan badminton.

2.Responding(memberi respon)

Tunjukkan t/t baru akibat pengalaman yang dilalui

Ikut, akur Secara sukarela,ikut gantung jaring badminton

3.Valuing(menghargai)

Pamerkan tingkahlaku tertentu atau komitmen

Laksanakan,sampaikan

Hadir permainan badminton tanpa dipaksa (optional badminton match)

4.Organization(organisasi)

Integrasikan nilai baru ke dalam nilai-nilai sedia ada dalam diri berbanding lain2 keutamaan

Pilih, pertimbangkan

Pilih untuk beli raket sendiri

5.Characterization(perwatakan)

Bertindak tekal dengan nilai baru, dikenali kerana nilai barunya

Menjadi contoh, pamerkan

Main badminton secara tekal 3 kali seminggu

Page 56: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Domain Afektif (Krathwohl)1. Menerima (Receiving)2. Memberi respon (Responding)3. Menghargai (Valuing)4. Komitmen (commitment)-

menggabungkan aras 4 – organisation dan aras 5-characterization (moore)

Page 57: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Behavioral DomainsThe Affective Domain (Bloom, 1964)Emotions, feelings & values

- Receiving – Willing ti listen or see- Responding – Active participation- Valuing – Internalize the worthiness- Organization – Ability to see the value- Characterization by a value – Behavior consistent with a value system

Page 58: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Aras domain Psikomotor(Horrow)

Aras Huraian deskriptif Eggen&Kauchak (2007). Pg91 The psychomotor taxonomy ( Harrow, 1972)

1.Reflex movements Behaviors outside the conscious control of the learner

2.Basic fundamental movements

Behaviors learned at an early age(eg grasping,walking)

3.Perceptual abilities Coordinations of muscular movements with the outside world through feedback with sense organ

4.Physical abilities The development of strength, endurance,flexibility and agility

5.Skilled movements Complex physical skills (eg skipping role, shooting a basket that use the first four levels

6.Non-discursive communication The use of our body to express feeling ideas

Page 59: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Aras domain PsikomotorAras Huraian deskriptif k/kerja Hasil pemb.

1.Perceiving Recognizing movement position or pattern

Listen observe

Discover headstand movement prinsiples

2.Patterning Reproducing movement position or pattern

ImmatatePractice

Perform headstand following modeling

3.Accommodating

Using or modifying movement position or pattern

AdjustModify

Use headstand in routine

4. Refining Demonstrating efficient control in performing pattern

ImproveMaster

Perform headstand with pointed toes

5. Varying Performing movement pattern in different ways

DesignDevelop

Perform headstand in three positions

6. Improving Originating novel movement or movement combinations

ContructInvent

Combine headstand with new skill

7.Composing Creating unique movement pattern

CreateInvent

Create new floor exercise routine involving headstand

Page 60: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Behavioral DomainsThe Psychomotor DomainMuscular, motor skills, “hands-on”

Readliness-willingness for an activityObservation-watches & is interestedPerseption-senses & becomes ableResponse-practise a skillAdaptation-develops and masters a skill

Page 61: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Behavioral DomainsThe Affective Domain (Bloom, 1964)Emotions, feelings & values

- Receiving – Willing ti listen or see- Responding – Active participation- Valuing – Internalize the worthiness- Organization – Ability to see the value- Characterization by a value – Behavior consistent with a value system

Page 62: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Behavioral DomainsThe Psychomotor DomainMuscular, motor skills, “hands-on”

Readliness-willingness for an activityObservation-watches & is interestedPerseption-senses & becomes ableResponse-practise a skillAdaptation-develops and masters a skill

Page 63: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Domain Psikomotor (ringkas)Imitasi (imitation)Manipulasi(manipulation)Ketepatan (precision)

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Aras Domain PsikomotorAras Huraian deskriptif Borich (2007) pg 100-pg 91

Imitation Require learner be exposed to an observable action and them overtly imitate it. Lacks neuramuscular coordination. Behavior generally is crude and imperfect after being shown a safe method for heating a beaker of water to boiling temperature, the students will be able ti repeat the actionsAfter being shown a freehand drawing of a triangle, the will be able to produce the drawing

Manipulation

Require the students to perform selected actions from written or verbal directions without the aid of the visual model or direct observations, as in the previous(immitation) level.students are expected to complete the action from reading or listening to instructions,although the behavior still may be performed crudely and without neuromuscular coordination.verbs are used similar to level imitation such as align,grasp,repeat,balance,hold,rest(on),follow,place,step(here) except they are performed from spoken or written instructions.1.Based on the picture provide in the textbook,type s situation to a prospective employer using the format shown.2.With the instruction on the handout in front of you,practice focusing your microscope until you can see the outline of the specimen.

Precision Requires students to perform an action independent of either a visual or a written set of directions. Proficiency in reproducing the action at this level reaches a higher level of refinement.accuracy,propotion,balance and exactness in performance accompany the action. Students are expected to produce the action with control and to reduce errors to a minimum. Expressions that describe outcomes-accurately,independently,with control,with out error,profidently,with balance

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Banyak mana seseorang belajar bergantung kepada

Masa yang diluangkan(time spent)Masa yang diperlukan(time needed)Degree of learning = f (time spent)

(time needed)

Page 66: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

PEMBELAJARAN MASTERYSuatu model/sistem untuk merancang dan

melaksanakan pengajaran bagi memastikan semua murid menguasai hasil pembelajaran yang dihasratkan dalam suatu unit pembelajaran sebelum berpindah ke unit pembelajaran seterusnya.

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Model Pembelajaran Masteri

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Ciri-ciri Pembelajaran Masteri

1. Hasil pembelajaran akhir perlu ditentukan.2. Hasil pembelajaran disusun mengikut hairaki

taksonomi Bloom.3. Penilaian berasaskan Ujian Rujukan Kriteria/

taksiran formatif/ diagnostik4. Murid perlu menguasai 80% aras masteri

yang ditetapkan setiap unit pembelajaran sebelum berpindah ke unit pembelajaran yang baru

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….sambung

5. Latihan pembetulan/ pemulihan dilaksanakan untuk murid yang belum menguasai aras masteri. Beri masa tambahan.

6. Aktiviti pengayaan diberi untuk murid yang telah mencapai aras masteri.

7. Bahan p&p yang sesuai dengan objektif pembelajaran.

8. Aktiviti p&p hendaklah bermakna, menarik dan menyeronokkan.

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Mengapa perlu Pembelajaran Masteri?Kerana :1.Murid mempunyai kebolehan dan

keperluan yang berbeza.2.Murid memerlukan masa dan akedah p&p

yang sesuai dengan mereka untuk mencapai hasil pembelajaran yang diharapkan.

3.Murid perlu menguasai pengetahuan,kemahiran dan sikap yang diajarkan.

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Susunatur pembelajaran

1. Tujuan pembelajaran yang terakhir sekali dinyatakan secara spesifik iaitu seorang murid yang kompeten dalam …

2. Tujuan pembelajaran yang terakhir ini dianalisa untuk mengenal pasti langkah-langkah yang perlu untuk tiba ke tujuan itu

3. Langkah-langkah disusunatur untuk memudahkan perkembangan ke arah tujuan pembelajaran itu.

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Soalan dalam JPKApa yang murid patut belajar dari unit ini?Apakah yang murid boleh buat dengan apa

yang dipelajarinya?

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Penulisan hasil pembelajaran

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Topic-level learning goals (2-3 per class period)check-list for creating topic-level learning goals

1. Is goal expressed in terms of what the student will achieve?does it identify what students will be able to do after the topic is covered?

2. Is the Bloom’s level of the aligned with your expectations for students learning…is this what students will be able to do if they ‘understand’ the topic at the level you want?- if you expect reasoning for ‘why’,does it convery that?- could you expect a higher level goal?

3. Is it well-defined?is it clear how you would test achievement?

4. Do chosen verbs have a clear meaning?5. Is terminology familiar/common?if not,is the terminology a

goal? Not every goal can achieve the following,but it is better if you can

6. Is it relevant and useful to students?(e.g. connected to their everday life, or does it represent a useful application of the ideas)

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Hasil pembelajaranSebelum tamat pengajaran,dalam masa 5

minit(c),murid Tingkatan 2Z(A) dapat menghuraikan (B-aras) 10 (D) sebab berlakunya….(B-isi pelajaran)

A-AudiensB-Behavior aras-isi pelajaranC-conditionD-desired criteria

LATIHAN-tulis satu hasil pembelajaran bagi setiap aras bagi konsep yang sama

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Kesesuaian hasil pembelajaran

1. Adakah ia jelas-memberi satu makna sahaja?2. Adakah ia boleh dicapai dalam masa yang ada?3. Adakah keadaan dan kriterianya sesuai?4. Adakah dalam turutan yang sesuai?5. Adakah ia selari sengan matlamat/tujuan mata

pelajaran keseluruhannya dan tajuk berkenaan?6. Adakah selari dengan niat kurikulum?7. Bolehkah dikenal pasti instrumen taksiran yang

sesuai?

(TIDAK LANGSUNG DISEBUT BERKAITAN KAEDAH)

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Kaedah GronlundFormat contohObjektif am-memahami dan menghargai

kepelbagaian pelajar yang wujud dalam sistem pendidikan di Malaysia

Hp 1-boleh mendefinisikan kepelbagaianHp 2-boleh memberi contoh-contoh

bagaimana kepelbagaian boleh….Hp 3-boleh menganalisa sejauh mana…

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Sebelum tamat pengajaran, pelajar boleh :

1. Menyatakan apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan

2. Menghuraikan jenis kecerdasan yang terdapat dalam Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan

3. Diberi contoh, pelajar boleh mengenalpasti aktiviti-aktiviti yang berkaiatan dengan sesuatu kecerdasan

4. Menghubungkait sunbangan aktiviti berteraskan Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan yang manakah yang menyebabkan kejayaan proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran

5. Menghasilkan pelan pengajaran yang menggunakan aktiviti berasaskan Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan

6. Menentukan asas pemilihan aktiviti berlandaskan Teori Kecerdasan Pelbagai bagi mencapai sesuatu hasil pembelajaran

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Penulisan hasil pembelajaran Kaedah

Gronlund Sebelum tamat

pengajaran, dapat menghuraikan jenis kecerdasan yang terdapat dalam Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan

Kaedah MagerSebelum tamat

pengajaran, dalam masa 15 minit (C) pelajar Tingkatan 4 Waja (A) dapat menghuraikan (B-aras) kesemua tujuh (D) jenis kecerdasan (B-isipelajaran) yang terdapat dalam Teori Pelbagai Kecerdasan.

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A – Audien B – Behavior C – Condition D – Desire

criteria

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perkaitan matlamat hingga hasil pembelajaran [aim, goals, objective and learning outcomes]Matlamat/tujuan

Am(jangka masa panjang)

Pendidikan

Objektif pengajaran/hasil pembelajaran Spesifik

[ Instruction objectives/learning outcome]

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Perbezaan pernyataan tujuan dan objektif pengajaran/penerangan

1. Matlamat pendidikan : “ pelajar akan menjadi warga negara yang berpengetahuan”.

2. Tujuan/Objektif “Pelajar akan memadankan industri utama dengan kawasannya.

3. Hasil pembelajaran [learning outcomes] : “Dalam masa 5 minit [C] bila diberi senarai

kawasan industri di Malaysia[C], pelajar Ting.4 Wira [A] boleh memadamkan [B- aras] setiap industri kepada kawasan [B-isipelajaran] dengan ketepatan 90% [D]”

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Cara Matlamat/Tujuan pendidikan

Pelajar akan1. belajar cara membaca2. menjalani kehidupan sihat3. menghayati seni dan muzik4. tahu bagaimana menyelesaikan masalah

algebra5.Berfikir dengan lebih jelas dan rasional

6.Faham kehedak negara

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Sifat matlamat/tujuan pendidikan

1. tidak boleh diukur atau dilihat2. pernyataan kabur walaupun ia memenuhi

hala tuju untuk pengajaran3. skopnya luas dan jangka masa panjang BANDINGKAN faham, tahu, hargai, hayati DENGAN menyenarai, menerangkan,

memadankan, menghuraikan

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Tidak perlu “SMART”S – specific [well defined]M- measurable [ supaya boleh dipantau

perkembangannya]A- action orientedR – realistic [ challenging but doable]T- time oriented [ include deadlines]Ramsey, RD [1999]. Lead follow or get out of

the way LB2831.82.R36

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Hasil pembelajaranHasil pembelajaran yang baik mempunyai

EMPAT (4) ciri :1.Berorientasikan murid2.Menghuraikan hasil pembelajaran3.Adalah jelas dan boleh difahami4.Boleh terlihat [observable]

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1. Berorientasikan murid

1. Murid boleh menyelesaiakan masalah berkaitan operasi bahagi dengan menggunakan sekurang-kurangnya dua cara

2.Murid boleh menyenaraikan lima peraturan nahu yang dibincangkan dalam Bab 3

3.Bila diberi huraian mengenai bentuk kerajaan, murid boleh mengklasifikasikan bentuk kerajaan itu

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1. Berorientasikan murid

A B

Memberi kuliah berkaitan langkah asa dalam kaedah saintifik

Menunjukkan kepada murid cara membaca pantas sesuatu bahan bacaan

Melaksanakan penyiasatan dengan menggunakan kaedah saintifik

Menulis satu sajak berkaitan patriotisma

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1. Berorientasikan murid

A- aktiviti guru B – aktiviti murid

Memberi kuliah berkaitan langkah asas dalam kaedah saintifik

Menunjukkan kepada murid membaca pantas sesuatu bahan bacaan

Melaksanakan penyiasatan dengan menggunakan kaedah saintifik

Menulis satu sajak berkaitan patriotisma

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2. Menghuraikan hasil pembelajaran

Hasil pembelajaran Aktiviti pembelajaran

Diberi rajah bunga yang tidak berlabel (C), dalam masa tidak lebih 2minit (C), murid Tg 1 Biru (A) dapat melabelkan (B-aras) sekurang-kurangnya 8(D) bahagian bunga (B- isipelajaran)

1. Set induksi2. Baca ms 17-22 buku

teks sains3. Teliti rajah bunga4. Gunakan rajah bunga

yang tidak dilabel, praktis melabel. Semak label yang terdapat dalam buku teks.

5. Kuiz labelkan rajah bunga

6. Taksir- label bahagian bunga.

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2. Menghuraikan hasil pembelajaran

Hasil pembelajaran Aktiviti pembelajaran

Dalam masa 5minit (C), murid Tg 1Z(A) mengenal pasti (B-aras) tidak kurang dari 10(D) contoh komponen ayat (B-isipelajaran)[iaitu katanama dan kata kerja] dalam ayat majmuk

1. Dengar penerangan guru mengenai katanama dan kata kerja

2. Lengkapkan ms 75-78 buku kerja

3. Main silangkata nahu dengan rakan sebelah

4. Pilih satu perenggan dari buku bacaan. Senaraikan katanama dan katakerja.

5. Semak jawapan bersama pasangan.

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2. Menghuraikan hasil pembelajaran

Hasil pembelajaran Aktiviti pembelajaran

1. Menerangkan fungsi jantung

2. Mengidentifikasi dari peta topo kawasan yang sesuai dijadikan penempatan

3. Mengenalpasti instrumen yang sesuai untuk tugas.

4. Menghuraikan sistem dua parti

1. Membaca Bab 62. Meneliti rajah

struktur atom 3. Praktis mendengar

perbezaan frekuensi yang berbeza

4. Menonton Star Wars5. Mengulangkaji nota

kuliah semalam6. Main dadu lagu7. Melakonkan watak…

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Murid Ting 2 Biru [A]KOMPONEN SOALAN CONTOH

Prestasi pelajar/aras-B

Buat apa? Tulis-label

Produk prestasi [isipelajaran]-B

Apa hasilnya? 3 ayat – 10 bahagian bunga

Keadaan/condition-C

Apa keadaannya semasa pelajar menghasilkan produk

Diberi 3 katanama- diberi 2minit

Kriateria prestasi/desired criteria-D

Sebaik-sebaik hasil adalah?

Tidak lebih dari 1 kesalahan-> 8betul, mengikut kepuasan hati guru

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Komponen hasil pembelajaran

1. Prestasi [performance]-B2. Hasil / produk/isispelajaran [product-

content]-B3. Keadaan/syarat[condition]-C4. Kriteria [criteria]-D

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ATAUA- audience[siapa yg diajar] cnth murid

tingkatan 4B-behaviour[tingkahlaku yang

diperhatikan],cth menyenaraikan [prestasi + konten – produk]

C- condition [keadaan dimana behaviour didemostrasikan] cth dalam masa 10saat, tanpa bantuan alatan, dalam kumpulan 4orang

D- desired criateria [aras prestasi yang diterima] cth 8 dari 10 betul, tiada yang salah, kesemua betul

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Komponen pertama hp-[1]Audien

1. Pelajar tingkatan 6 atas2. Pelajar perempuan3. Pelajar asrama harian4. Pelajar bermasalah pembelajaran5. Kanak pra sekolah6. Ibu tunggal7. Belia sukarelawan

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Komponen kedua hp-[2] behaviour aras atau prestasi dgn produk/isipelajaran

Pelajar dapat1.Menulis angka hingga 102.Menggariskan katanama dalam ayat3.Menyenaraikan idea utama dalam cerpen4.Mengkategorikan daun mengikut tekstur

daun5.Menyelesaikan masalah berkaitan

pendaraban log

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Komponen ketiga hp- [3] condition [syarat/ keadaan]

Batasan masa, bantuan alatan/sumber tenaga1.Diberi satu senarai yang mengandungi 20

pengarang2.Setelah membaca Bab 23.Dengan menggunakan buku teks4.Diberi pembaris dan protraktor5.Tanpa menggunakan sebarang rujukan6.Dalam masa 10 minit7.Sebelum minggu ke 108.Dalam kumpulan 3 orang

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Komponen ke 4 hp- Kriteria1. Aras minima yang diterima: sekurang-

kurangnya 3 sebab, kesemua 5 langkah2. Peratus atau kadar yang diterima : 80% tepat,

90% daripada 20 masalah, 9 dari 10 kes3. Toleransi keralatan yang diterima : +/-

10%,0.1 terdekat, peratus terdekat4. Had batasan masa : dalam 10 minit, kurang

dari 5 minit5. Gabungan: sekurang-kurangnya 2 masalah

dalam masa 5minit, dalam masa 20 minit dengan 90% ketepatan

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3. Hasil pembelajaran adalah jelas dan boleh difahami

Ia eksplisitMempunyai katakerja [clearly stated verb

that describe a define action or behaviour]Contoh1.Melabel bahagian jantung2.Mengukur panjang tali3.Mengenalpasti unsur dalam sebatian4.Menyenaraikan komponen surat rasmi5.Mengucapkan petikan dalam Bahasa

Jerman

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4. Hasil pembelajaran boleh dilihat

Implisit Eksplisit

TahuFahamPercayaHargaiHayatiFikirSukaSedarseronok

KenalpastiSenaraikanMenerangkanMemilihTuliskanLukiskanMenganalisaMeramalmengasingkan

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Domain Afektif [krathwohl]1. Menerima [receiving]2. Memberi respon [responding]3. Menghargai [valuing]4. Komitmen [ comitment]- menggabungkan

aras 4-organization dan aras 5-characteriszation

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Aras Afektif 1- Menerima [receiving]

Sedar menerima rangsanganKata kerja pilih, dengarCthBerada dalam kelas semasa guru mengajar

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Aras Afektif 2-memberi respon [responding]

Memberi respon kepada ransangan melibatkan diri dengan lebih aktif

[ pergerakan fizikal]Secara sukarela memberi responKatakerja menjawab, mengucapkanCthKedudukan murid mengadap guru dengan

bahagian atas badan condong ke depan sains

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Aras Afektif 3-Menghargai [valuing]

Secara sukarela menunjukkan penghargaan

Kata kerja bertanya, menyoal, mengajakCthMenbuat catatan, angkat soalan untuk

kemukakan soalan

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Aras Afektif 4-komitmen [ commitment]

Mempunyai sistem nilai yang tekal dan mengamalkan nilai-nilai tersebut

Kata kerja mempertahankan, mempengaruhiCthMengamalkan tingkahlaku tersebut secara

tekal

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Domain Psikomotor [ringkas]

1. Imitasi [ imitation]2. Manipulasi [ manipulation]3. Ketepatan [ precision]

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Aras psikomotor 1-Imitasi [Imitation]

Melaksanakan kemahiran asas dengan arahah dan dibawah penyeliaan

Koordinasi dan pelaksanaan tidak kemasKata kerja latih tubi, menggunakanCthPelajar boleh meniru pergerakan guru

menggembur tanah

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Aras psikomotor 2-Manipulasi [manipulation]

Melaksanakan sesuatu kemahiran tanpa sebarangan arahan atau penyeliaan tapi belum menunjukkan kemahiran

Kata kerja mengenakan, mengetatkan, membungkus

CthDapat menggembur tanah secara

bersendirian tetapi masih wujud batas-batas yang padat

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Aras psikomotor 3-ketepatan [precision]

Melaksanakan sesuatu kemahiran dengan tepat, cekap dan secara harmoni

Koordinasi telah sempurnaKemahiran telah dihayati [ can be

performen unconsiously]Kata kerja mensejajarkan, mengkalibrasi,

menipulasi, membinaCth : murid dapat menggemburkan secara

sendirian dan dapat mengubahsuai kekuatan dan sudut anyunan cangkul untuk menggembur tanah

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IS THIS HOW WE FEEL AFTER A SEMESTER OF TEACHING?

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Aras Pengalaman Pembelajaran

1. Pengalaman lisan2. Pengalaman visual3. Pengalaman vikarios4. Pengalaman simulasi5. Pengalaman terus

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Aras Pengalaman pembelajaran

1. pengalaman lisan Apa yang dilisankan oleh guru,

melibatkan satu pancaindera sahaja, menggunakan simbol yang abstrak, murid tidak aktif secara fizikal.

Contoh : bagi tajuk “ bagaimana parlimen menggubal undang-undang”, murid-murid mendengar ceramah bagaimana parlimen menggubal undang-undang.

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Aras Pengalaman pembelajaran

2. pengalaman visualMelibatkan gambar pegun, rajah, carta,

murid, tidak aktif secara fizikal.Contoh : mendengar ceramah bagaimana

parlimen menggubal undang-undang sambil menonton slaid yang berkaitan.

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• 3. Pengalaman vikarios• Program video / murid secara tidak langsung melakukannya walaupun mungkin pergerakan fizikal adalah terbatas.• Contoh: Melakukan lawatan untuk melihat sendiri bagaimana parlimen menggubal undang-undang.

Aras Pengalaman Pembelajaran

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Aras Pengalaman Pembelajaran4. Pengalaman SimulasiMain peranan, melakukan eksperimen,

simulasi, melibatkan sebahagian besar panca indera, aktiviti mengintegrasi pelbagai disiplin, menghampiri keadaan sebenar.

Contoh: Mensimulasikan proses penggubalan undang-undang di kelas.

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Aras Pengalaman Pembelajaran5. Pengalaman TerusMurid sebenarnya melakukan apa yang

dipelajarinya, inkuiri tulen, melibatkan kesemua panca indera, menggabungkan pelbagai disiplin, perkara yang sebenar.

Contoh: Memilih jawatan kuasa untuk memantau satu program sekolah. Pemilihan adalah bermodelkan parlimen.

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Kaedah pengajaran berpusatkan guru-berpusatkan murid

Kawalan Guru

Banyak Kuliah, modelling

Sdh Ke Byk Kuliah dengan sj, demonstrasi

Sederhana (Sdh) Sokratik

Sdk Ke Sdh Perbincangan, penemuan, individualised instruction

Sedikit (Sdk) Debat, main peranan, simulasi, permainan, inkuiri, pembelajaran koperatif, kajian bebas

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Pendekatan/ strategi/ kaedah/ model/teknik p&pKaedah debat, deduktif, demonstrasi,

drama, eksperiman, induktif, inkuiri, kajian kes,kerja amali, kerja lapangan, kuliah, main peranan, membuat keputusan, metakognisi, pembelajaran koperatif, pembentangan, penyelesaian masalah, perbincangan, permainan, projek, simulasi, soal jawab, sumbangsaran.

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Taksiran formatifLatihan (praktis terbimbing/ bertempoh) –

soalan objektif – betul salah, aneka pilihan, aneka lengkap, padankan, cloze test

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Learning Framework…but have you answered the questions all

learners need to know?where do I need to go?Why should I gi there?How will I get there?How will I know when I’ve arrived?

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Design of Engaging Work Clear criteria Relevant content Affirmation & Affiliation Novelty &Variety

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Design Elements of Engaging WorkAffirmation – Recognition of work and worthAffiliation – Working with others towards a

common goalSafe – no fault practiceClear criteria – Clear description of qualityChoice – Sharing decision making

(empowerment)Authenticity – Real life expectations- meaningful,

valuable relevant content enduring, necessary for future learning, important in real life

Organization of learning how/ where learning fitsNovelty & variety -Brain is hard- wired to pay

attentation to anything new

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What does brain research tell us is necessary of engagement?Novelty – brains are wired to pay attention

to new thingsChallenge – proximal zoneFeedback – descriptive, within thirty

minutesCoherence – fits with what is knownSufficient time – to go deep, construct new

knowledge

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Design Elements of Engaging WorkAffirmation – Recognition of work and worthAffiliation – Working with others towards a

common goalSafe – No fault practiceClear criteria –Description of qualityChoice – Sharing decision making

(empowerment)Authenticity – Real life expectations- meaningful,

valuable relevant content enduring, necessary for future learning, important in real life

Organization of learning how/ where learning fitsNovelty & variety -Brain is hard- wired to pay

attention to anything new

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Remember that the person doing the work is growing the dendrites

Pat Wolfe, 2001

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Essentials of Classroom Based AssessmentResearch shows increases in student

achievement and motivation when students

Are involved

Know criteria for success

Receive and use descriptive feedback

Understand learning goals

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14 Behaviors Teachers Use that Increase Student AchievementThe teacher….1. Calls on everyone in the room equitably.2. Provides individual help.3. Gives “wait time”.4. Asks questions to give students a clue to the answer.5. Ask questions that require more thought.6. Tells students whether their answers are right or wrong.7. Gives specific praise.8. Gives reasons for praise9. Listens.10.Accepts feeling of student.11.Gets within arm’s reach of each student each day.12.Is courteous to students.13.Show personal interest in students.14.Does not call attention to every negative behavior.

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Guidelines for Effective Praiseeffective Ineffective Praise

1.Is delivered randomly or unsystematically.

2.Is restricted to global positive reactions.

3.Shows a bland uniformity that suggests a conditional response made with minimal attention.

• Effective Praise 1.Is delivered contingently2.Specifies the particular accomplishment.3.Shows spontaneity, variety, and other signs of credibility; suggests clear attention to students accomplishments.

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Guidelines for Effective Praiseeffective

Ineffective Praise4. Rewards mere

participation, without consideration of performance, process, or outcomes.

5. Provides no information at all or gives students no information about their status.

6. Orients students toward comparing themselves with others and thinking about competing.

• Effective Praise 4. Rewards attainment of specified performance criteria.5. Provides information to students about their competence or the value of their accomplishments.6. Orients students toward better appreciation of their own task-related behavior and thinking about problem solving.

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Guidelines for Effective PraiseEffective praise7. Uses students own

prior accomplishments as the context for describing present accomplishment.

8. Is given in recognition of noteworthy effort or success at difficult (for this student) tasks.

9. Attributes success to effort and ability, implying that similar successes can be expected in the future.

Ineffective praise7. Uses

accomplishments of peers as context.

8. Is given without regard to effort expended or the meaning of the accomplishment.

9. Attributes success to ability alone or to external factors such as luck or low task difficulty.

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Guidelines for Effective PraiseEffective praise10. Fosters endogenous

attributions (students believe that they expend effort on a task because they enjoy the task and/ or want to develop task- relevant skills.

11. Focuses students attention on their own task-relevant behavior.

12. Fosters appreciation of, and desirable attributions about, task-relevant behavior after the process is completed.

Ineffective praise10. Foster exogenous

attributions (students believe that they expend effort on a task for external reasons to please the teacher, win a competition or for a reward.

11. Focuses students attention on the teacher as and external authority that is manipulating them

12. Intrudes into the ongoing process, distracting attention from task-relevant behavior.

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Pendekatan/strategi/ kaedah/ model/ teknik p&pKaedah debat, deduktif, demonstrasi,

drama, eksperiman, induktif, inkuiri, kajian kes,kerja amali, kerja lapangan, kuliah, main peranan, membuat keputusan, metakognisi, pembelajaran koperatif, pembentangan, penyelesaian masalah, perbincangan, permainan, projek, simulasi, soal jawab, sumbangsaran

Page 136: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Thinking About The Sternberg Intelligences

Analytical linear – schoolhouse smart - sequentialShow the parts of _____and how they work.

Explain why __________works the way it does.

Diagram how _______affects___________.

Identify the key parts of______________.

Present a step-by-step approach to_____________.

Practical street smart – contextual – focus on useDemonstrate how someone uses _________ in their life of work.

Show how we could apply ______to solve this real life problem ________

Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used.

Here’s a problem at school, _____. Using your knowledge of _____________, develop a plan to address the problem.

Creative innovator- outside the box – what if - improverFind a new way to show __________

Use unusual materials to explain __________________

Use humor to show___________________

Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________________

Make connections between ___________and _______to help us understand _______________

Become a __________and use your new perspective to help us think about __________________.

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Practical: using this 8 given cities, (or you may choose other cities after approval by teacher), demonstrate how landforms and bodies of water contributed to the development and movement of people to this site over of the period of time. You may use overlay transparencies or models to show the areas and growth.Creative: develop a map of a new world that has at least 8 different types of landforms and /or bodies of water. Using labels, etc., determine how these sites would grow due to economic possibilities of these geographical features, and predict population growth over a period of time.Analytical : create clues or a set of directions to help us identify and locate at least 8 landforms on the map (given in the textbook, or a map provided by the teacher). Clues/ directions should also be based on population and economic growth and changes.

Page 138: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Learning Style Social Studies Lesson on Landforms Based on Sternberg’s Intelligence Preference

Know : geographical terms (isthmus, delta, peninsula, river, island)

Understand : landforms and bodies af water effect human movement and influence the development of cities.

Do : locate and label specific landforms analyze how landforms produce economic

advantages that establish settlements.After student have read and taken notes on the

chapter, the teacher reviews with the whole class the basic information on landforms. Then, students are given a choice of three assignments to be done individually or in groups of two or three.

Page 139: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Partial List of Learning Modality Tasks/ Skills

Kinestheticmodel demonstr

atebuild

Act out Use tools to

dance

produce simulate craft

transform

Show in lab

make

Oral

Visual

Auditory

diagram overlay Map

Chart Timeline Web

Illustrate Cartoon Model

graph Video Pop-up

recite Broadcast

Speech

Discuss Question Interview

Debate Cook/taste

Sing

Argue converse perform

radiocast soundscape

Music

Preach commercial

Chant

Persuade Ad/jingle Rhythm

compose Speech phone

Page 140: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Social Studies Chapter Review: Differentiation by Learning ModalityStudents are asked to a read a textbook chapter, using a graphic organizer for note-taking. They then prepare a review/response using learning modality preferences. They may work in ‘learning style alike’ partnerships to prepare the response. In class, they will debrief in groups of 4 with each modality represented in each group.

KinestheticUsing your notes, create a set of overhead transparencies, 1-3 minute simulation, cardboard puppet theater, or short drama that helps us link the big ideas, crucial moments, and important people in this chapter.

OralUsing your notes, create a set of 5-8 open- ended questions that are designed to be asked of the important people in this chapter. The questions responses should reveal the big ideas, crucial moments, and other important people. You will be the responder as someone else reads at least two of the interview questions.

VisualUsing your notes, create a power point (4-5 slides), timeline, or concept map that helps us understand the main ideas, crucial decisions, and important people in this chapter.

AuditoryUsing your notes, create a 1-3 minute news item that summarizes the essential ideas, crucial decisions, and people. You may tape or videotape this, using your voice and others.

Page 141: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Differentiation by Learning Modality PreferenceSewing Project Choices in Consumer Education Class

students will all create a small, original product using skills of: sewing, design & layout, fabric selection, color choice, embellishment choices

KinestheticCreate a cloth book or baby blanket made of varying textures of fabric that would allow a child to feel rough, smooth, thick, thin, soft, hard, etc. be prepared to justify your choices.

OralCreate a quilt square or small wall- hanging that tells a story or responds to a question. For example, “when I am joyful, I …..”be prepared to justify you choices

VisualCreate a fabric illustration, college, or pillow that sets a strong, visible mood. Be prepared to justify your choices.

AuditoryCreate a fabric collage or pillow using a particular piece of music as inspiration for fabric and color selections. Be prepared to justify your choices.

Page 142: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Primary Transportation by learning modality continued

Kinesthetic•Construct/build a vehicle using classroom materials•Demonstrate how it goes, use vocab words to describe.

Oral•Identify a vehicle and its parts as you tell a story•Describe what makes it move and how it goes;use vocab

Visual•Draw a picture of a vehicle and label it’s parts•Show how you made your vehicle and how it goes by making a poster

Auditory•Identify a vehicle through the sound that it makes using sound effects tape; use vocab•Use a sound or song with a vehicle to show how it moves and goes

Page 143: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Possible formats to use with RAFTS

Written Visual Oral Kinesthetic

•Diary entry Cartoon/comic song model

Bulleted list Crossword puzzle Set of discussion?

cheer

obituary map conversation mime

Invitation Scale plan or drawing

monologue reenactment

Product guide Graphic org. sermon Wax museum

Game rules Concept web radiocast Demonstration

Recipe illustration Museum guide Sales pitch with demo elements

Movie critic Print ad commercial Physical analogies

Freq Ask Ques photograph Readers theater Taste tests

Editorial Power point interview ‘how to’ video

Character monologue

‘how to’ diagram Tasting game

Job application Fashion design political speech Sew, cook,build

Gossip column Puppet show Design a….

Mag. article Story tell

Page 144: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Three Common Types of ProblemsWell- structured problems- Clearly formulated, solved by specific

procedure, solution evaluated against agreed – upon standard

III- structured problems- Complex, few clues to solution procedures,

less- definite criteria for measuring solutionIssues - III- structured problems that arouse strong

feelings

Page 145: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Five Step Approach to Problem SolvingRealize that a problem exists.Understand the nature of the problem.Compile relevant information.Formulate and carry out a solution.Evaluate the solution.

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HeuristicsStudy worked examples.Work on a simpler version of the problem.Break the problem into parts.Work backward.Solve an analogous problem.Create an external representation of the

problem.

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Systematic Framework for EvaluationAsk and answer a set of basic questions

(who, what, where, when, how).Identify imperfections and complications.Anticipate possible negative reactions from

other people.Devise improvements.

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What is transfer of learning?Transfer of learning is….. - students independently apply knowledge

and skills to similar but new information.

Page 149: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Types of TransferPositive transfer - A situation in which prior learning aids

subsequent learning.Negative transfer - A situation in which prior learning interferes

with subsequent learning.Zero transfer - A situation in which prior learning has no effect

on new learning.

Page 150: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Types of TransferSpecific transfer - Situation in which prior learning aids

subsequent learning because of specific similarities between two tasks.

General transfer - Situation in which prior learning aids

subsequent learning due to the use of similar cognitive strategies.

Page 151: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Type of TransferNear transfer

- knowledge domains are highly similar, the settings in which the original learning and transfer tasks occur are basically the same, and the elapsed time between the two tasks is relatively short.

Far transfer

- knowledge domains and settings are judged to be dissimilar and the time between the original learning and transfer tasks is relatively long.

Page 152: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Types of TransferLow-road transfer

- situation in which a previously learned skill or idea is almost autimatically retrieved from memory and applied to a highly similar current task.

High-road transfer- situation involving the conscious, controlled, somewhat effortful formulation on an “abstaction” that allows a connection to be made between two tasks.

Page 153: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Teaching for Low-Road and High-Road TransferProvide students with multiple opportunities for varied

practice to help them develop a rich web of interrelatead concepts.

Give students opportunities to solve problems that are similar to those they will eventually have to solve

Teach students how to formulate for a variety of tasks general rules, stratrategies, or schemes that can be used in the future with a variety of similar of problems.

Page 154: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Teaching for Low-Road and High-Road TransferGive students cues that will allows to retrieve

from memory earlier-learned information that can be used to make current learning easier.

Teach student to focus on the beneficial effects of creating and using rules and strategies to solve particular kinds of problems.

Page 155: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Technology Tools for Knowledge Construction and Problem Solving

Multimedia simulation

Computer-supported intentional learning

environments.

Learning through collaborative visualization

Jasper Woodbury and anchored instruction

Constructivist-oriented web sites

Page 156: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

Curriculum Enrichment TechniquesType I enrichment

- involvels exploratory activities that are designed to exposed student to topics not ordinarily covered in the regular curiculum

Type II enrichment

- involves instuctional methods and materials aimed at the development of thinking and feeling processes.

Type III enrichment

- consists of activities in which students investigate and collect data about a real topic or problem.

Page 157: Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

THE NATURAL LEARNING STAGES(COMPRSSED IN 4 STAGES OR EXPANDED IN 6 STAGES)

STAGE 1: Motivation/watch, have to, shown,interest

STAGE 2: Start to practice/practise,trial, & errors, ask ?’s

STAGE 3: Advanced Practice/practice, lessons, read,

confidence

STAGE 4: Skillfulness/some success, enjoyment, sharing

STAGE 5: Refinement/improvement, natural, pleasure, creative

STAGE 6: Mastery/teach, recognition, higher challenges