Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

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Text of Bloom Dan Solo Taksonomi

  • Minggu 5-6

  • 8 Komponen utama dalam merekabentuk pengajaran UPSI 2009 (adaptasi Tyler)

  • Membuat analisis keperluan dan kesediaan murid dalam konteks pembelajaran yang akan dilaksanakanMembuat analisis kandungan kurikulum : kandungan topik yang hendak di ajar, dari segi pengetahuan di dalamnya: fakta, prosedur, klasifikasi, prinsip dan teori, dan kemahiran seperti membuat eksperimen, mencari maklumat dalam internet, menulis laporan dan sebagainya.Berdasarkan (1) dan (2) diatas guru menentukan objektif pengajaran iaitu tahap hasil pembelajaran yang realistik yang perlu dicapai oleh murid.Menyusun turutan (sequence) unit-unit pengajaran supaya beransur maju, bersambungan dan berkembangMemilih dan mengguna kombinasi pendekatan, kaedah, dan teknik pengajaran yang sesuai dengan kesediaan murid dan sifat isi kandungan topik berkenaanMembina, memilih dan mengguna alat dan media bantu pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang sesuai untuk memudahkan proses pengajaran pembelajaranMenyedia latihan yang sesuai dan mencukupi untuk semua murid supaya pembelajaran mereka berkesan dan mencapai Masteri

  • Jadual Penentu Kandungan

    Rancangan Pengajaran HarianAras taksonomi BloomPengetahuanKefahamanAplikasiAnalisisSintesisPenilaianTopik 1RPH 1XXTopik 1RPH 2XTopik 6Topik 7RPH 7XXTopik 7RPH 8XX

  • Rancangan Pengajaran HarianAras taksonomi BloomPengetahuanKefahamanAplikasiAnalisisSintesis PenilaianRPH 1FotosintesisMekanismeFotosintesisRPH 2Meningkatkan kadar fotosintesiRPH 7Punca Fotosintesi tidak cekapRPH 8Peningkatan kadar fotosintesis. Pengkomersilan sistem fotosintesis

  • Contoh konsep fotosintesis dalam pelbagai arasSebelum tamat pengajaran, murid dapat:

    Menyatkan fotosintesis? Apakah yg dimaksudkan dengan fotosintesisMenerangkan mekanisma fotosintesis.- Terangkan mekanisma fotosintesisMengaplikasikan faktor-faktor yang boleh meningkatkan kadar fotosintesis (diberi situasi) untuk menangani pelbagai masalah persekitaran, bagaimanakah meningkatkan kadar fotosintesis? Prinsip faktor2 yang mempengaruhi kadar fotosintesis

  • Contoh konsep fotosintesis dalam pelbagai arasSebelum tamat pengajaran, murid dapat:

    4. Mengenalpasti punca tumbuhan tidak berfotosintesis ( Diberi situasi) kenalpasti punca tumbuhan tidak berfotosintesis dengan cekap.5. Mencadangkan satu sistem untuk mengatasi masalah cuaca untuk meningkatkan fotosintesis cadangkan satu sistem untuk mengatasi masalah cuaca untuk meningkatkan fotosintesi6. Menjustifikasi bagaimana sistem cadangan mereka patut dikomersialkan Bagi sistem yang anda cadangkan, justifikasi / terangkan bagaimana kenapa ia patut dikomersialkan

  • Bagi satu isi pelajaran tertentu, kenalpasti profil akhir pelajar (hasil akhir boleh pamerkan) yang menunjukkan mereka :

    1. Kognitif- Berpengetahuan dalam. 2. Psikomotor- Berkemahiran dalam. 3.Afektif- Mempunyai sikap.

    Susun atur pelan perancangan hingga ke hasil akhir dalam JPK dan boleh diuji dengan JPU

  • Jadual Penentu Ujian

  • Instructional events

    Pengalaman pembelajaranAktiviti pembelajaran

  • Hunters Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)Set induksi (Anticipatory set or Set Introduction)Maklumkan objektif pembelajaran (Standards)Input pengajaran (Input)Permodelan (Modeling)Semak kefahaman murid (Checking for Understanding)Pantau dan ubah suai (Monitoring)Praktis terbimbing (Guided practice)Praktis bertempoh (Independent practice)Penutup (Closure)

  • Hunters Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)

    1. Set InduksiSometimes called a hook to grab the students attention : actions and statements by the teacher to relate the experience of the students to the objectives of the lessons. To put students into a receptive frame of mind, to focus student attention on the lesson, to create an organizing famework for the ideas, principles or information that is follow (c.f, the teaching strategy called advanced organizers.)To extend the understanding and the application of abstract ideas through the use of the example or analogy.. Used any time a different activity or new concept is to be introduced.2. Maklumkan objektif pembelajaranBefore the lesson is prepared, the teacher should have a clear idea of what the lesson outcomes are. What specifically, should the stydent be able to do, understand, care about as a result of the teaching. Blooms Taxonomy of Magers Educational Objectives.

  • Hunters Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)

    3. Input pengajaranThe teacher provides the information needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill through lecture, film, tape, video, pictures, ect4. PermodelanThe teacher provides the information needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill through lecture, film, tape, video, pictures, ect

  • 5. Semak kefahaman muridDetermination of whether students have got it before proceeding. It is essential that practice doing it right so the teacher must know that students understand before proceeding to practice. If there is any doubt that the class has not understood, the concept / skill should be retaught before practice begins. Usually through questioning6. Pantau dan ubah suaiIf required, reteach7. Praktis terbimbingAn opportunity for each student to demonstrate grasp of new learning by working through an activity or exercise under the teachers direct supervision. The teacher moves around the room to determine the level of mastery and to provide individual remediation as needeed. Guided practice ( in class seat work). With the teacher circulating (e.g, praise, prompt and leave). Monitor students work, providing corrective feedback as necessary and assess performance of the group in determining whether the class is ready for the next instruction. Additional time for those whose aptitude calls for adorgen learning period can be provided by giving extra credit assigment supplementary.

  • Hunters Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)

    8. Praktis bertempohOnce pupils have mastered the content or skill, it is time to provide for reinforcement practice. It is provided on a repeating schedule so that the learning is not forgotten. It may be class formative testing, homework or individual work in class. It can be utilized as an element in a subsequent project. It should provide for decontextualization : enough different contexts so that the skill / concept may be applied to any relevant situation .. Not only the context in which it was originally learned. The failure to do this is responsible for most student failure to be able to apply something learned. Independent practice ( additional class time or homework) begins when students have achieved an 85 to 90% accuracy level. To insure retention and develop fluency, students practice on their own without assistance and with delayed fluency, students practice on their without assistance and with delayed feedback (eg, comments on graded paper). Five or more brief practice activities distributed over a month or more may be required to fix the new concept / skill.

  • Hunters Lesson Cycle Design Model (1976)

    9. PenutupPenutup Those actions or statements by a teacher that are designed to bring a lesson to bring a lesson presentation to an appropriate conclusion. Used to help students bring things together in their own minds, to make sense out of what has just been taught. Any questions? No. OK, lets move on is not closure. Closure is used : to cue students to the fact that they have arrived at an important point in the lesson or the end of a lesson, to help organize students learning, to help form a coherent picture, to consolidate, eliminate confusion and frustration, etc,To reinforce the major points to be learned.. To help establish the network of thought relationships that provide a number of possiblities for cues for retrieval. Closure is the act of reviewing and clarifiying the key points of a lesson, tying them together into a coherent whole and ensuring their utility in application by securing them in the students conceptual network

  • Gagnes Instructional Events Model (1988)Tarik perhatian muridMaklumkan objektif pembelajaranImbas kembali apa yang telah dipelajariPenyampaian yang jelasBimbing pembelajaranDapatkan / galakan responBeri maklumbalasTafsir prestasiSusun atur praktis untuk tingkatkan ingat kembali dan pemindahan ke situasi lain.

  • Rosenshine & Stevens Intructional Functions Model (1986)Semak pemahaman murid (semak kerja yang diberi sebelum ini. Ajar semula jika perlu)Ajar konten baru (beri kerangka, hurai dengan terperinci, kaitkan konten baru dengan konten yang murid telah pelajari)Praktis murid (murid diberi tugasan untuk praktis, bersoal jawab, beri maklum balas, pantau praktis, semak pemahaman murid)Maklumbalas / pembetulan ( maklum balas berterusan, perhatikan ralat-ralat yang kerap dilakukan oleh murid, terangkan semula jika perlu)Praktis bebas (pantau)Semak semula pemahaman (semak secara berkala-ajar semula jika perlu)

  • Prior KnowledgeWhats the big deal?

    Its all about memory files.Cataloging and retrieving

  • Way to Gather Prior KnowledgeK-W-LBrainstormingAnticipation GuidesAgree/Disagree StatementsDumpingMindstorms

  • Fleksibiliti pengelompokanSaling berubah-ubah mengikut kesesuaian

  • Grouping StrategiesYoung: student choice, last name, food preferences, birthday, color of clothesOlder: goals, jobs, location, experience, familiarity with task

  • Pengelompokan/groupingKeseluruhan kelasPasukanKumpulan kecilBerdua/bertigaIndividuSatu mentor satu menteeSistem stesyen dengan kumpulan kecil

  • Flexible GroupingHomogenous/ AbilityIndividualized or - Cluster students of similar Independent Study abilities, level, learning style, or-Self paced learning interest.- Teaches time management and - U